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KINE 1020 Exam Review.doc

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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 1020
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KINE 1020 Exam Review Intro to fitness and health • Hippocrates: if we could give everyone the right amount of exercise we would find the safest way to health • Aristotle: does running make you healthy or does good health allow you to run o Father of kin • Edward Stanley: those who say they don’t have time for exercise will have to find time later for illness • Relationships between lifestyle and health: o Smoking = less likely to engage in physical activity o Those who exercise do not necessarily stop smoking o More active = usually better nutrition o No relationship between alcohol and physical activity o Physical activity involvement and positive health and safety practices is inconclusive • “Firsts” o Luigi Galvani- electricity stimulates contraction o Carl Ludwig- human blood pressure o Augustus De’sire- (EKG) electric activity of human heart o Archibald V. Hill- Maximal oxygen intake (Vo2 max) o A.F. Huxley- theorized muscle cross-bridges in contraction • “Physical Fitness”= Body composition, Musculoskeletal Fitness, Cardiovascular Fitness • Definitions o Physical Fitness- ability to live an optimal life (walk up stairs when needed) o Health related fitness- components that allow you to do activities of daily living (can you touch your toes, walking your dog, normal body weight) o Performance related fitness- components to that enable optimal work or sport performance (gymnast- leg behind head, carrying hose up stairs) • What is Health? (health spectrum, check power point) “absence of disease and/or symptom” • $200 billion, 4% increase, 11.6% of GDP, o Still increasing how much we spend on health care based on graph o Babies and elderly cost more for health care (costs a lot for use to die of chronic disease) • USA spends most on health insurance (means they have more disease, etc) • OHIP does not cover everything (spending is slip on public and private costs) • What do spend money on? o Hospitals, drugs, physicians, other professional, other health spending, Public health, etc • Disease prevention= not a lot of money ($480 million for tobacco, Only 5 million for PARTICIPACTION) • Participation- tried to get people active by government funded commercials • Body Break- Private, give tips for easy exercises and tips for being healthy (commercials or videos) Health Care Systems • Health= “connection between body, mind and spirit • You can determine ones health by looking at them • Health care Concept o Lalonde Framework  Health impacted by human biology, environment, lifestyle, health care organization • Health care “systems” o Combination of public and private health o Public means government is paying for some of our health care (not all) o Does not cover medications • Access: Canadians have to wait for access to care o Fewer MRI machines in Canada per capita than in the USA o Patients are ranked based on “urgency”  Physicians can rank wrong • Determinants of Health – Picture On Slide • Medicare is a publicly funded health care • OHIP, In order for you to get a health card: o Canadian citizen, permanent resident o Must be in Ontario for 12 month period o Primary residence Canada o Thing cover such as;  home care, and other support  Community health care services  Potion of costs of long term home care  Most of medication • USA Vs. Canada o Medicare in the US is restricted to the elderly • Base: primary care (services5000 to 50000) such as walk in clinic • Secondary care (50000 to 500000) hospital that contains a specialist • Tertiary Care (500000 to 5000000) Such as best specialists o Most people want to work tertiary level but they need people in primary but people say they won’t make enough money • Health care expenditures is raising • Canada spends 10% of gross domestic product • Ways in which USA might be more superior? o More doctors/advanced equipment o Variety of plans and options o Prescriptions covered o Doctors make a little more • Canada Superior? o Everyone gets high quality care o Access to doctors and equipment guaranteed (have to wait) o Longer life expectancy o Less spending o Doctors decide who gets medical attention • “Unless you are very very wealthy in the US, your family is just one serious illness away from bankruptcy” o Medical problems caused 62% of all personal bankruptcy in 2007 o 80% of those people reported having medical insurance o Highest costs were complications from diabetes • Those who are inactive spend a lot more time in hospitals and physicians, etc o Which costs a lot of money to run • Canada’s reporting on good health is decreasing for both genders o Causes could be related to technology and lack of physical activity (cars, etc) • Physician Income o They all make more than 100000-280000 net in Canada and USA o They have to pay expenses such as taxes and location costs • Our health is impacted by where we live, access to health care, • In the 1900 most people died from infectious disease • Since the 1900 life expectancy, sanitation, vaccines, treatment, increased chronic disease o Increasing lifestyle can help fix that • 1900, Females are seen to live longer than males o It has almost doubled and females are seen to live around 4.7 years longer 80.9 yrs old o WHY?  More medical attention, females seek help more often, more conscious of health, etc • Life expectancy is projected to continue to increase • What kills Canadians? o 2/3 from heart disease and cancer o Accidents o Diabetes Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) • Several factors determine our self care and the quality of our environment o Diversity and social exclusion o Income inequity o Job security and working conditions • Being healthy is a continuum • Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) o Group of diverse medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not generally considered part of conventional medicine  48% of adults use these • Types o Broad categories natural products (dietary supplement that are non-vitamin or nomineral such as fish oils), mind and body medicine (yoga, meditation)and manipulative and body based practices (spinal manipulation, massage therapy) and other (methods, Pilates, homeopathy) • Can CAM help? o Psychological – if your mind believes it work then it can manipulate your body to believe so o Conflict of interest o Sometimes these things do work very well (snake venom to cure headaches, lizard spit lowered blood sugar levels • CAM Issues and safety o Generally unregulated in Canada  No one really says that claims they make to works are actually false  Some may even be covered by private health insurance  Select CAM practitioners with care (those who are trained)  Some dietary supplements can interact with medications  Tell your health care providers if you use any • Evidence comes from peer reviewed original published manuscripts /journals • EBM is the process of systematically reviewing and using clinical research finding to aid the delivery of optimum clinical care to patients • We must determine the strength or weight of the evidence for a type of care (medical and nonmedical) o Cost effective o Clinically effective • Evidence based guidelines o “apple a day keeps the doctor away”  Could be true but research needs to prove it • Quality of evidence o Level I: evidence obtained from at least 1 randomized controlled trial RCT (best type of study)  There are things that can manipulate results o Level II-1: evidence from well designed controlled trials with randomization o Level II-2: evidence from well designed cohort or case-control analytic studies  No control group, Cohort=select group of people with things in common o Level II-3: evidence from multiple time series with or without the intervention o Level III: opinions of respected authorities, based on clinical experiences • Bloodletting: putting leeches on your skin to withdrawl blood to treat disease until 1800 o Man in the 1800 that did research on it he saw that 18 of 41 that bled early 44% died and 9 of 36 that were bled late 25% died  He saw that bloodletting did not work (level II) o Ex of scurvy  Was seen that the Vikings that ate 2 oranges and 1 lemon prevented scurvy (level II) o Heart disease study: those who that took hormone replacement therapy protects against heart disease in females (retrospective) o Prospective study design (better): take all women who took hormone replacement therapy and compare them to those not on hormone replacement therapy and over time look at heart problems (found the same thing) o Randomized control trials: cartoon of coloured happy faces representing differences between women (randomly select from all women into 2 groups)  The results of the study were opposite  Called a double blind study  Those who received hormone replacement therapy had increased chance of heart attacks o Tylenol and Advil study found that a mix of both were better than each by themselves • Process of EBM o Production of evidence through research and review o Production and dissimilation of Mental Illness (Guest Lecture 1) • Can be defined many ways (by social norms) o Behavioural or psychological syndrome or pattern that occurs o DSM (book filled with diagnostics)  If they meet the majority of symptoms they are diagnosed • Disability and dysfunction • Diagnosis creates a common language, labels people, culturally validated • How common is mental illness o 1 in 3 to 1 in 5 Canadians will have a mental illness o 1 in 6 will seek treatment o 1 in 8 people will spend time in a home • Schizophrenia means “split mind” (split from reality) o NOT two personalities o Symptoms are grouped into positive and negative  Negative are loss of function (loss of feeling, )  Positive and addition of something (hearing voices, delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech) • Onset and causes o Onset = late teens or early twenties o No specific cause o Genetic Evidence o Dopamine imbalance o Viral infections o Familial influence- schizophrenogenic environments • Bipolar disorder (extremes of depression and mania) o Onset = late teens or early twenties o 1 or 2% of people affected o High risk of suicide (insights is low) • Common symptoms o Exaggerated self esteem, increase in energy, less sleep, pressured speech, irritability, flight of thought, poor judgement (unusual and risky activities)  A lot of famous people have bipolar such as Ben stiller • Depression o Symptoms around for 2 weeks, change in eating, weight loss/gain, loss of interest in activities (Anhedonian), no energy, feeling of worthlessness/guilt, inability to concentrate, suicidal, delusions and hallucinations • Symptoms o Severe anxiety o Worries about smaller ideas o Complains about physical symptoms o Many visits to the family doctor for various physical symptoms • Anxiety Disorder o 10% population affected, GAD, OCD, Phobias, social anxiety, panic disorder Mental Health Care (Guest Lecture 2) • Who should seek it? o Those who have had significant symptoms overt time, interfere with function, behaviours continue despite wanting to stop, loss of contact with reality • Who seeks it? o Mid-life adults, women, single, separated or divorced, less educated, born in Canada o BUT people wait a long time before getting help (4-23 years)  Most dont even seek care (60%)  Why? (costs, access, fear of hospitalization, stigma/lack of social support) • Stigma (negative label) o A mark of disgrace or infamy o Extreme disapproval of a person based on a characteristic o Components: labeling, stereotyping, devaluating, discriminating, ignorance, prejudice  Related to feeling of isolation, hopelessness, low self esteem, reduced opportunities, bullying, having a stigma worsens other stigmas • Can lead to denying illness, reduces attraction of entering mental health professions o More and more things to educate and understand their lack of knowledge against stigma • Psychotherapy o Who provides it?  Mainly general practitioners, but many diff sources (telephone/internet lines, etc) o What is it?  Interpersonal, relational intervention  Goal: increase sense of well being and function, reduce distress  Can happen in individual, couple, family, or groups  Short or long term  Can be in a combination of other treatments (medications, etc) o What do they provide?  A working alliance between patient and therapist  Emotionally safe setting  Confidentiality except safety issues • Aaron beck designed cognitive behavioural therapy o Disorders stem from inaccurate automatic thoughts about life and self  “everyone should like me” o Negative views of the past, present, future o The goal is to teach patients to recognize, challenge and stop the thoughts • Usually contains 16-20 sessions and is just as good as anti depressions o A mix of both is best • How does it work o “extra therapeutic” factors (40%)  Client factors: you knowledge and dedication  External factors: ex. Losing your job o Therapeutic alliance (30%)  Agreement between client and therapist ex. Your goal/expectations o Therapy model and technique (15%) o Placebo effect (15%) Health Psychology • Study of social, behavioural, cognitive, and emotional factors that influence the: o Maintenance of health o Development of illness and disease o Course of illness or disease o Patients and families response to illness and disease • World health def: (1948) o A complete state of physical, mental, and social well-being and not just absence of disease and infirmity o Mental health promotes optimism, happiness, self worth, self efficiency, • The most famous survey to access ones health is the SF36 (short form 36)-36 questions o Tells you about your physical health and mental health  Physical functioning, role-physical, bodily pain, general health  Vitality, social functioning, role-emotional, mental health • Main factors of our health o Behavioural (40%) o Other factors (30%) o Genetic (20%) o Medical Care (10%) • Health Psychologist o Have a PHD, scientist that do research in an area, o Health promotion- intervene at the social or individual level to promote health o Industrial, personality, developmental, social, experimental, neuropsychology, cognitive, physiology, clinical... o Clinical health psychology- individual level to treat illness, slow or prevent disease progression • Behavioural risk factors o Diet, exercise, smoking, safe sex • Biology factors o Anatomy, genetic variability • Pathogens o Germs toxins • Social o Family, society, friends • Biopsychosocial Model o Psychological component (things we chose to do) o It is effected by behavioural, emotional, cognition, and personality o Committed on keeping people healthy rather than treating • Most north Americans accept that exercise is beneficial (yet 51% of Canadians are inactive) • Many people go through a dropout cycle (start exercise (find excuses) = stop exercise = contemplate exercising = start exercise (keeps going) • Most of our behaviours are a result of our environment o Family, peers, friends o Homes, schools, work o Television, radio, o Communities, country, culture • We have engineered our society for short cuts o Taking elevators instead of stairs • Diabetes Map o Middle of town have less diabetes o Everything in the middle has transit = more walking and physical activity • Obesity is worsening Personality • Barriers to change o Lack of core values (education, motivation) o Procrastination o Preconditioned cultural beliefs (changing “culture”) o Instant Vs. Long term gratification o Risk complacency o Complexity and feeling overwhelmed o Indifference and helplessness o Rationalization o Illusions if invincibility • Self efficacy (positive quality to have) o Internal confidence to accomplish a task o Determines how you feel, think and behave  If you have a reasonable level of self efficacy people seem to be less depressed  Influences your vulnerability to stress and depression o Sources: mastery experiences, vicarious experiences (role models, visualize success) • Motivation • Locus of control o Theoretical psychological model about your own personality traits  High External: what happens is not your fault (ex. U were asked wrong question) • Take either high or low risk situations o Can lead easy going, relaxed, happy lives  High Internal: Take things into your own hands (also known as “Self Agency”) • Males generally more internal than females • As people get older they become more internal • Those higher in companies are also more internal • Moderate risk taking o Disadvantage: more likely to use drugs, high levels of anxiety, alcohol consumption, early stroke  Continuum: A healthy balance between internal and external • Best to be more internal but not completely • Not good to blame yourself for everything o Impediments to taking action  Problems of competence, confidence, motivation, short Vs. Long term gratification • Changing behaviours o Stop/prevent negative behaviour o Build positive behaviour • Theories for behaviour change o Learning theories: modifying many small behaviours that shape the new pattern behaviour Ex. Increasing daily steps o Problem solving model: many behaviours are the result of decision making ex. Why is smoking bad? o Transtheoretical model: 6 stages  Pre contemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, relapse, stable(improved lifestyle • Timing is important • We must do other things such as: consciousness-raising (information about problem), social liberation (external), self-analysis (desire to change , emotional arousal (dramatic release) o Some are to rare • So the process of change requires having a personal outlook(optimistic), commitment (accept responsibility), behaviour analysis (determine behaviour pattern), goals (strong goals), self re-evaluation (feeling about the problem), countering (healthy behaviours for problem), monitoring (awareness of outcome) o Impacted by our environment, relationships, and rewards • SMART (setting realistic goals) o Specific, Measurable, Acceptable, Realistic, Time-specific Physiological Vs. Chronological Aging • Aging: the process of getting older o Chronological age: how many days you have been alive o Physiological: how old does your body act/feel • Dental age: used around 30 yrs ago o Look at mineralization and demineralization in teeth  Can’t use it now because we drink fluorinated water • Skeletal age: kids have growth plate, which if broken can cause different length bones • Fetal skeleton at 18 weeks o Dark areas denote ossified portions and spaces between cartilage models  Ossification: bone development  joints not fully developed (spaces or gaps) • bone age: based on a x-ray the older you get the development of bones increase more bones fill spaces • Size matters in sports: players born in second half of year and late developers being filtered out of sport o Those born earlier have a advantage because they have more time to develop  Someone born in jan compared to someone born in dec o Players can actually be benched due to size  Can be unsafe to play against players bigger of size • Puberty: o Onset of menses: menarche  Girls 1 menstruation • Usually between 8-16 usually around 12  Tanner stage • Looks at body development due to body parts (penis, vagina, big titties) • Skin appearance o Age 30: forehead lines o Age 40: wrinkles around the eyes o Age 50: permanent web of lines around eyes and mouth o Age 60: permanent bags under eyes, “liver spots” o Age 70: skin looks to big for face, nose/ears become longer • Hair: skin starts to thin as you get earlier and u loose hair • MPHL (male pattern hair loss) o Caucasian most likely to have some baldness • Causes: autoimmune, burns, infectious disease, thyroid diseases, nervous habits (hair pulling), radiation therapy, ringworm of the scalp o NOT Causes: wearing a hat, hair sprays, shampoos, gels, dyes(decrease quality of hair) o Drugs you can use on your hair do work on prevent thinning and hair loss, but you must continue to use them or it will continue hair loss • Physiological Age o Height loss : as you get older your spin shrinks after the age of 30  Usually happens to upper body o A person age as estimated by their body’s health and probable life expectancy o Age is estimated in terms of function o Brain weight decreases 15% by age 80 o Basal metabolic rate decrease 5% at age 60 and decrease 20% at age 80 o Cardiac output decrease 20% at age 60 and 30-35% by 80 o Respiratory capacity decrease 20% at age 60 and decrease 45% by 80  IN GENERAL DECREASE IN FUNCTIONAL CAPASITY WITH AGE  The body will respond to the stress you put on it • Classification indices o Homogenous groups for competition  Age vs. body size groups for competitions o Frequency of medical check ups  Colon polyps (>5yrs) o Insurance premiums  Tax incentives o Retirement age  Should everyone retire at age 65? • Lifestyle factors o Reflects personal attitudes o Health related behaviours:  Smoking, alcohol, diet, safety practises, health practises Personal Nutrition • Nutritional requirements o Essential  We don’t make them (water, macronutrients, some vitamins)  Provide energy, help build/maintain body tissues/regulate functions • Water (60% body) o You can live 50 days without food but only a few days without water  used in digestion and absorption  recommended intake is about 2L a day (8 cups) • Macronutrients o Protein (4kcal/g) o Carb (4kcal/g) function is to provide energy  Simple (glucose, fructose, sucrose  Complex • Starches(grains, legumes • Refined (endosperm • Whole grain (bran herm = fiber)  Changing from a complex to simple is easier for body to digest (Glycemic index) o Lipids (9kcal/g) o Alcohol (77kcal/g)  Energy needs are critical and must be in balance with energy expenditure to maintain weight  University students should intake 2930-4410 for men and women 2270- 4410 o Protein: function is to help build new tissue to keep things health (hair, skin and eyesight) • Fiber o Lowers G.I, blinds cholesterol, lower CV risk, binds water, bulks up and softens feces (shit is a good indication of health), relieves constipation prevents hemorrhoids and diverticulitis • Fats o Saturated- provide energy, trigger production of cholesterol and LDL (red meat, dairy)  Each Carbon have a single bonds o Unsaturated – provide energy, trigger more “GOOD” cholesterol production and less BAD (some fish, olive, oils, margarine) • You will find a double bo
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