Feb 28 th
1) What side of brain is the stroke occurring on?
-left or right
2) Chances are what kind of stroke is it?
-hemmorraghic or ischemic [some blockage within artery or clot]
Exercise can completely abolish the negative effects of a high fat diet.
What type of exersice should ppl with COPD do?
-high intensity interval training
because the cardiovascular demand for these types of exercise is lower. During leg pain do resistance exercise
focusing on getting that leg strength back up. Breathlessness – respiratory exercise.
Which of the following conditions is the best described by: non fatal, caused by clot formation, can be caused by
oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy?
-deep vein thrombosis
u can die from all of the above except deep vein thrombosis [during this it hurts a lot]
Osteoporosis: Porous Bones
• Bones that have thinned from the inside due to mineral loss are vulnerable to fracture.
• However, osteoporosis is both preventable and treatable. -think matrix makes it vulnerable to fracture
-it is treatable Aging and Bone Deterioration
-Density of bone decreases when u get older
-in mid 20s u can accumulate bone mass which will
gradually decrease as u get older and ur abilty to increase ur
bone mass is decreased as compared to what it was before
20 – 25 yrs of age
-high peak bone mass [tells u about osteoporosis] is better
as u will be able to withstand falls or injuries that might
otherwise cause fracture in low peak bone mass. A Fetal Skeleton at 18 Weeks
• Dark areas denote ossified portions and spaces between cartilage models.
• Ossification (bone development)
• Mesoderm cell cartilage bone Aging and Bone Deterioration Common Symptoms
• Pain in bones and lower back
• Height loss (~1.5 inches every 10 yrs after menopause) [the more u shrink the more likely u have
• Night cramps in legs and feet
• “Dowager’s hump” [caused by bones being crushed] a forward
bending of spine
• Extreme fatigue
• Fractures (osteoporosis causes 90% of fractures after age 65) Do men get osteoporosis?
Yes, but less often than women:
• 35% of US women and 10% of men age
60 and over have osteoporosis.
• Men have more bone mass to start and don’t go through menopause
but andropause [lose testosterone; that makes man fatter and less musculature] What causes osteoporosis?
• Diet lacking in essential nutrients (Calcium, Vit D)
• Hormone imbalance (common after menopause; decrease in estrogen; estrogenhelpful in bone building )
• Lack of regular exercise
• Other causes:
– Endocrine disorders such as diabetes, thyroid over-activity, excessive adrenal or parathyroid
– nutritional disorders, such as anorexia nervosa Hormone Replacement Therapy(HRT)
Given in severe cases and in short term
• Progesterone and DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) are hormones vital to bone health.
• Combination of estrogen & progestin (studies on estrogen alone are still on going)
• Taken for relief of menopause symptoms (hot flashes, mood swings, loss of libido or depression)
• Previously thought to prevent heart disease & osteoporosis
• Major study terminated in 2002 as evidence indicated that HRT increased a women’s risk of heart
disease by 29%, stroke by 41% and breast cancer by 26% Bone Remodeling
[build more bone than u lose]
-in the bone matrix bone lining cells move out of the way and
the osteoclasts come in and eat away the cells in the region
where the bone is getting damaged. Then the osteoblasts
come in and build the bone. Certain hormones n drugs help
the osteoblasts be more/less efficient. A type of hormone:-
Parathyroid hormone will have bone health effects How is Bone Density Measured?
Hologic, QDR Series Bone Densitometer [Measure bone density ]
- Dense bone: xray is prevented going thru Incidence of Osteoporotic Fracture by Age Group
Keen R, Best Prac & Res Clin Rheum (2007)
- hip fracture most common during older age compared to vertebral and wrist Osteoporosis Fractures
• Bone weakens and collapses, leading to height
• -spine slope forward., lower ribs rest on iliac
crest ..abdominal distention [big tummy]
• Fracture occurs on front side of vertebra, causing
hunched-over posture Vertebral Fractures
-pinched nerves, leg pain, back pain. Osteoporosis Fractures
• Wrists or forearms break when a person breaks
fall with hands Osteoporosis – Hip Fractures
May lead to serious complications.
Up to half of elderly patients end up in nursing
homes after a hip fracture
-breaks femur [biggest bone in the body], so if u break ur hip or pelvic area
ur likely to cut off the femur artery n u’ll die.
• 60% have difficulty with at least one essential
activity of daily living (i.e. dressing, bathing)
• 80% are restricted in other activities (i.e. driving,
• 50% will be unable to walk without assistance
• 10%-20% will die in the subsequent 6 months, and
21-36% in the subsequent year PA levels, diet, effects.
-high peak bone mineral density prevents
u from having fracture later in life
p Approximately 40% of white women and 13% of white
men in the United States have at least one fragility fracture after the age of 50 years.
High Peak BMD
Low Peak BMD
Fracture Threshold (Osteoporosis)
20 50 80
-High peak bone
prevents u from
during old age How Many People Experience Fractures?
Dennison et al., Rheum Dis Clin N Am (2006)