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kine 1020 exam notes part 2

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York University
Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 1020
Jennifer Kuk

th Feb 26 Sample questions: 1) what is joe’s resting VO 2? Heart rate= 70 bpm; [stroke volume]Q = 5 L/min; CaO 2 – CVO 2 = 5% a) 0.25 L/min b) 1.75 L/min c) 2.5 L/min d) 17.5 L/min e) 25 L/min *cardiac output= HR x SV CO/ HR = SV VO2 = HR x SV x (CaO2 – CVO2) = Q x (CaO2 – CVO2) = 5 L/min x 5% VO2 = 0.25 L/min 2) what are cilia? a) hair like projections in your nose, throat, trachea, and bronchus that capture debris in the air you breathe b) hair like projections that r in your trachea and bronchi that capture debris in the air you breathe c) it is the flap that keeps air out of your stomach and food out of your lungs d) they are the rings in ur trachea that keep ur aiways open 3) what is NOT afeature of restrictive lung disease:? a) decreased lung compliance [stiff lung] b) vasoconstriction [narrowing] in some areas of the lungs c) excessive mucus productions [this is more common in OBS ;obstructive lung disease] d) increased respiratory rate [hard to expand the rib cage’ shallow rapid breaths] e) all of these are features of restrictive lung disease 4) What causes Right ventricular heart failure in COPD? a) insufficient blood flow to the heart b) artherosclerosis c) pulmonary hypertension [when muscles r hypoxic i.e. low oxygen, the blood vessels vasaldialate to allow more blood to the areas to supply more oxygen to the hypoxic areas of the muscles. Exact opposite happens in lungs, cuz blood goes to lungs to get oxygenated and if areas of lungs are lacking oxygen blood cannot b sent to those areas as it wont pick up any oxygen and vasal constriction happens within the lung tissue and areas with low oxygen concentration to redirect the blood to the areas which r getting good oxygen supply to get re-oxygenated. In people with lot of areas that lack oxygen get lot of vasal much restricted that it becomes hard to pump the blood thru small blood vessels. Pulmonary hyptertension works like a pump n makes your heart pump the blood a lot harder.. which leads to right ventricular heart failure.] d)rigid lung pressing on the heart e)all of the above Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder(COPD) COPD = Bronchitis + Emphysema -bronchitis ..inflammation of bronchioles. -emphysema: destroying of alveolar walls (small alveoli walls are destroyed losing surface area making larger alveoli walls) -hence don’t get much surface area for gas exchange to occur Normally, hypoxia (low oxygen) in the muscle causes vasodialation (vasal dialation of blood vessels) Vasal dialation allows more blood flow and restore oxygen supply (low areas of oxygen open up and lets blood in)  blood flow  oxygen supply BUT….Hypoxia in pulmonary blood vessels but in lungs the areas of low oxygen constrict and instead the lungs send the blood to areas with high oxygen content and then the blood gets picked up and goes to the rest of the areas of the body tissues. if no air no blood can be picked up. So The lungs send blood to only areas with high oxygen content where the blood can actually be picked up -vasoconstriction too much contriction leads to ->  pulmonary hypertension heart is trying to pressure the heart and the load will cause right ventricle heart failure.   afterload causes right ventricle heart failure COPD is –ive to you because Can cause Right Ventricle Heart Failure -right side of heart pumps blood to ur lungs th Impact of COPD • 5 leading cause of death • Major cause is smoking (environment, infections) • Symptoms – Shortness of breath – Cough – Wheezing – Fatigue – Weight loss – Chest and stomach pain – Anxiety Chronic Bronchitis – Irritation -> Bronchial tubes become inflamed Inner lining swells excessive, thick mucus – Air flow obstruction damage (cilia) and cough “Scanning EM of ciliated tracheal epithelium Bronchitis,” e in a wild-type mouse,” Bronchitis Symptoms • Frequent cough that produces mucus • Mild fever • Fatigue • Wheezing sounds when breathing • Tightness or dull pain in the chest • Shortness of breath • Acute bronchitis often develops 3-4 days after a cold or flu. • Most recover in 2-3 weeks, but the cough can last 4wk+ (in smokers, asthmatic patients) • Smokers will have a harder time recovering. Smoking causes damage to cilia -occurs due to viral or bacterial infection Treatment for Bronchitis Acute bronchitis • Drink lots of fluids • Get plenty of rest • Avoid smoke and fumes • Viral (antibiotics will not help; only good for targeting certain bacteria) Chronic Bronchitis (not due to viral causes) • Bronchodilators • Steroids (reduce inflammation caused by irritation from mucus) • Oxygen therapy • Pulmonary rehab Emphysema (other typeof COPD) – Irritation (due to smoking): lung tissue (airways and alveolar) damage – Alveoli loss elastic recoil, and so the individual needs to work to push air out of their lungs. -loss of alveolar units. Small alveolar units will break off and become bigger reducing the amt of surface area. -during inhaling, intercostals muscles are used and during exhaling no muscles are used. Emphysema Alveolar SurfaceArea O 2ptake CO O2floading “Gross pathology of lung showing centrilobular emphysema characteristic of smoking’’ -the tar (black holes in the lung of a smoker) limits ur ability for Emphysemea.” gas diffusion Lung Function Tests Obstructive Disease Normal/ Increased Total Lung Vital Tidal Capacity Capacity e Volume u o V n L Functional u m L ( Residual Residual Volume Volume Increased -as discussed earlier in restrictive lung disease the lung volume got smaller but in obstructive the residual volume increases and everything else follows by shifting up. [the total lung capacity is normal] How to Exercise Test With OPD u can exercise depending on severity of their COPD; you may need to assess the oxygen levels while exercise (if the O2level is too low the person might pass out. So monitor the oxygen saturation.because hemoglobins reflect light differently when they r bound to oxygen and times when theyre not. • Small work increments • Assess oxygen desaturation (very imp to monitor this in the beginning stage)-no
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