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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 1020
Kuk/ Riddell

thJanuary 4 Lecture Topic 4Why is strength importantPerformance relatedSportGreater power speed balanceReduce demands on cardioJoboccupational requirementsReduced risk of injuryProductivityHealth RelatedLower risk of functional limitationsAvoid injuriesPredicts advanced age disabilityReduces chronic low back painLower risk of chronic diseasesImproved blood sugar controlPrevents osteoporosisPsychological healthImproved selfimageEmergencies Endurancetype 1 muscle fibre higherlow type 2 Powertype 2 muscle fibre higherlow type 1 Best to have range of fibres but affects type of sport you doFibre type proportion related to type of activity endurancepowerWinning not predicted by muscle fibres can be small range difference 80 outperform 85Health Related 2Lowering the risk of functional limitationsMaintaining or improving muscular strength later in life reduces the percentage of functional limitations over 50 for both menwomanMuscle strength across the lifespan static dynamic pull strength and muscular endurancePaediatric yearschildhood to young adultElderlyIf you train as young adult relatively maintain strength through old age does decreaseDecreasing muscle strength with agingSarcopenia loss of muscle mass and strength due to aging 12 muscle mass per year past 50 yrs of ageloss of strength varies may be greaterPrevalenceImpacts 1025 of the population under age 70 and 40 above age 80By 80 yrs a loss of 3040 of muscle fivers hypoplasia of muscles containing type II muscle fibers ConcernsRisk of functional limitationsSarcopenia is a result of programmed cell death apoptosisCharacterized by DNA fragmentationNuclear condensation leading to formation of apoptotic bodies engulfed by macrophages but do not induce an inflammatory responseCell shrinks when near apoptosis thJanuary 6 Lecture Topic 4 continuedDNA fragmentation2 main proteins DFF 40 DNA fragmenting factor 40degradesfragments the DNADFF 45 DNA fragmenting factor 45inhibits DFF40DFF45 changedDFF40 activeDNA fragmentationCasp3 Caspase 3enzyme activated during apoptosis Nuclear condensation or DisassemblyUncondensedringNecklaceCollapse DisassemblyDecreasing Muscle Strength with AgingPotential causes of Sarcopenia still being identified1Activation of apoptotic pathwayscaspases enzymes that breakdown and degrade proteins and DNA and AIF 2Loss or hormonal adaptations decrease in testosterone and growth hormone3Loss of neurological influences selective loss of type II motor units resulting in cluster of type I muscle fibre with ageApoptotic pathwayslead to programmed cell deathInactiveActiveCaspaseDependent ProcessesProcaspases inactive Caspases activeDNAProtein
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