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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 1020
Jennifer Kuk

Human Respiratory System Important Terms Nose passageway for air nose hair filterscaptures particles that you dont want in your lungs It is not a perfect system some still get inWarms air Mouth passageway for food and air warms air Nose and mouth passageways are connected Nasal Cavity filters warms and moistens air Pharynx throat common passageway for air food and liquid Larynx voice box production of sound Trachea windpipe main airway Bronchi branching airways Alveoli air sacs for gas exchange Lung organ of gas exchange Intercoastal muscle moves ribs during respiration Diaphragm skeletal muscle of respiration Pleural membranes covers the lungs and line the chest cavity Epiglottis covers larynx during swallowing opens when you breath closes when you eat Cilia hairlike projection line the primary bronchus to remove microbes and debris from the interior of the lungsWhatever particles do get through the cilia on the trachea brushes the mucous away upwards til it goes to the epiglottis and you swallow it which is better than it going into the lungs Goblet cells secrete mucous that helps food move mucous helps collect up dust and foreign particles these cells do not have cilia If there is excessive mucous the cilia cannot brush it all off which results in too much mucous and congestion Functional residual capacity after blowing out all air what you have left normal breathing Serfactin helps lungs not stick when theres no air Minute ventilation how much you breath in a minute Sperometer measures the volume of air you breath in and out Tidal volume normal breath from inhalation to exhalation Total Lung Capacity how much air is in the lungs Vital Capacity max Inhalationmax Exhalation SA node regulates how fast your heart beats by sending electrical pulsesCauses the atrium to contract which pumps to ventricle then pumps to the body Components of the Lower Respiratory Tract Right side 3 lobes right bronchus Left side 2 lobes smaller because your heart is on that sideAnatomy of the Lower Respiratory Tract 1 Conductive zone no gas exchange humidifies warms and filters air air enters through mouthnosetrachealarynxbronchibronchioles 2 Respiratory zone gas exchange AirO2 goes from bronchiolesalveoli Inspiration vs Expiration 1 Inspiration Diaphragmair in diaphragm goes down expands lungs external intercoastal muscles contract rib cage goes out 2 Expiration Diaphragm air out diaphragm goes back to original position goes a bit higher internal intercoastal muscles muscle layer inside ribs expand go up Important ValuesAverage Male Average Female Description Amount ofair inhaled or Tidal Volume TV 500 mL 500 mL exhaled with each breath under resting conditions Max Amount of air Total Lung Capacity 6000 mL 4200 mL contained in lungs after a TLC max Inspiratory effor TLC TVIRVERVRV Lung Function TestRoutine speriometry tests basic lung functionYou blow into a speriometerFunctional residual capacity and residual volume cannot be measured with the speriometer The Healthy Heart Left side pumps to your body Right side pumps to lungs Why do we need an atria Why do we need 2 parts to the heartThe thin atrial walls are nice and thin so that the blood can easily return to the heartThe atrial contractions over fill the ventricles so that they are slightly stretched and allow for a better contraction and ejection fraction Frank Starling Mechanism elastic recoilNot possible with the low venous blood pressure aloneVentricle walls are much thicker so that it can generate the blood pressure necessary to distribute blood around the bodyAtriums pack the ventricles full if you didnt have atriums the heart wouldnt fill as well therefore your exercise capacity will go down
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