Appendices A-C.docx

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York University
Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 2011
Olivier Birot

Appendices A: Systme Internationale/Physiological Measurements - The sizes of structures are relative o Can see (biggest to smallest) With unaided eye: Length of some nerve/muscle cells Chicken eggs Frog egg With a light microscope/electron microscope (in m 1/1 000 000 m): Plant/animal cells Nucleus Most bacteria Mitochondrion With an electron microscope (in nm 1/1 000 000 m): Mycoplasmas (smallest bacteria) Viruses Ribosomes Proteins Lipids Small molecules B: A Review of Chemical Principles - 96% of the body consists of oxygen (most common by mass), hydrogen (most common by relative number), nitrogen, and carbon - Most common molecule in the body water - Bonds (strongest to weakest): o Covalent atoms share electrons Ex: peptide bonds Hard to break without enzymes in the human body Release energy when they are broken Some release more energy than others depending on the strength of the bond o Ionic gaining or losing electrons, opposite charges attract Ions are not neutral o Hydrogen the attraction between the positive charge in a polar molecule to the negative charge of another polar molecule o Van der Waals attraction between non-polar molecules due to close proximity - Solute dissolved, relatively small in size - Colloids relatively large in size (100Kdaltons +), usually charged, do not succumb to the force of gravity - Suspensions components (other than water), are relatively large in size, will settle under the force of gravity - Organic chemicals contain carbon o Some exceptions: CO , pure C, CO, carbonates, bicarbonates 2 - Organic molecules that are essential for life are called biomolecules o Ex: simple sugars, fatty acids, amino acids, nucleotides these are monomers, the building blocks for polymers (larger biomolecules) Ex: complex carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids Large polymers macromolecules - Acids, bases and salts can be organic or inorganic o Salts are produced when acids and bases react with one another o Acids = proton donators; bases = proton acceptors o Inorganic salts are important in maintaining our acid-base balance - Simplest organic molecules: hydrocarbons o Biomolecules always have elements besides hydrogen added to the carbon backbone Four Classes of Organic Molecules - Carbohydrates (contain CHO) have similar structures to each other o Simplest carbs monosaccharides (ex: fructose, galactose, ribose) o 2 monosaccharides together = disaccharides (ex: sucrose, lactose) o Polysaccharides = many saccharide units together Examples: Glycogen o A storage CHO in animals o A branched molecule o Made up of glucose molecules o Synthesized by humans Starch o From plants o Digestible for humans for energy Cellulose o From plants o Not digestible for humans because of the way the glucose units are bonded o Most common attached functional groups: alcohol, aldehyde, ketone o Functions: Provide energy through glycolysis Store energy in glycogen Provide dietary fibre Provide carbon atoms for the synthesis of other molecules Form part of the structural elements in cells - Lipids defined by their insolubility in water; can have unrelated structures o Soluble in nonpolar solvents (ex: alcohol) o Ex: fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterols, steroids o Functions: MAJOR source of energy storage in plants and animals Act as the structural components of cells (membranes) The basis of some hormones (steroids) o Simple lipids made up of two components: Fatty acids Hydrocarbon chain with a carboxyl group on it COOH Natural ones always have an even number of carbons attached Hydrocarbon chain can contain one or more double bonds between carbon atoms o No double bonds saturated fatty acid Mostly solid at room temperature Predominately in dietary animal products Eat too much = risk of heart disease o With double bonds unsaturated fatty acid Mostly liquid at room temperature More double bonds = higher degree of unsaturation Predominately in dietary plant products Alcohols Most common one found in simple lipids glycerol o A 3 carbon alcohol with 3 alcohol functional groups OH o Simple lipids called fats and oils are formed between the reaction of the COOH group of 3 fatty acids and the 3 alcohol groups of glycerol Resulting lipid is E-shaped and is called triglyceride Fats solids at room temperature Oils liquids at room temperature Melting point goes down with increasi
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