04 Skeletal System.docx

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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 2031
Neil Smith

May 7, 2012 Skeletal System Functions: Support and Protection:  Bones provide structural support and serve as a framework for the entire body  Bones also protect many delicate tissues and organs from injury and trauma.  The rib cage protects the heart and lungs  the cranial bones enclose and protect the brain  the vertebrae enclose the spinal cord  the pelvis cradles some digestive, urinary, and reproductive organs. Lever for Muscles  The bones of the body serve as lever arms and the muscles provide the force; together they produce limb and total body movement  The direction and magnitude of the forces generated by the skeletal muscles can be altered by bones.  Potential movements range from powerful contractions needed for running and jumping to delicate, precise movements required to remove a splinter from the finger Haematopoiesis  Tissues in the middle of some bones (sternum, ilium) serve as the location for the production of blood cells.  Blood cells are produced in a connective tissue called red bone marrow, which is located in some spongy bone.  Red bone marrow contains stem cells that form all of the formed elements in the blood. Storage for Minerals  More than 90% of the body’s reserves of the minerals calcium and phosphate are stored and released by bone.  Calcium is an essential mineral for such body functions as muscle contraction, blood clot-ting, and nerve impulse transmission.  Phosphate is needed for ATP utilization, among other things. When calcium or phosphate is needed by the body, some bone connective tissue is broken down, and the minerals are released into the bloodstream.  Potential energy in the form of lipids is stored in yellow bone mar-row, which is located in the shafts of long bones. Bone Terminology Osteoblast: bone forming cell Osteoclast: Cells that break down and help to remodel and reshape bone Osteocyte: Mature bone cells Compact Bone: Densely packed bone on the external surface; like a she
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