- Functions (5 main functions)
- Basic structure (arteries go away..arteries dont always carry oxygenated blood)
o Pulmonary artery carry deoxygenated blood to lungs
Other arteries carry oxygenated since they are going away and need to go to
other body parts
o Pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood
Other veins carry deoxygenated
- What side (left/right) contains oxygenated vs deoxygenated
o Right side contains deoxygenated)
- Pericardium: mediastinum (between lungs)
o Pericardial layers (2 parietal layers, space – pericardial cavity, visceral serous layer)
Fibrous pericardium, parietal serous, space, visceral serous layer
- Heart structure/blood flow
o Know it perfectly!
o Know the valves (where they are located and function)
o (not a lot but still)
o Understand what happens
o Sinoatrial node gives signal, atria contract, then av node picks up signal and then takes it
down to the ventricles and then papillary muscle.
- Blood vessels
o Different betweel veins
Arterioles similar to artery and venules similar to veins
Compare and contrast the venous and the arteries
(questions related to which artery or veins are connected to each other)
Ex: when brachial artery divides, what it becomes)
(questions about what a artery supplies and what it drains)
Specifically arms and legs (ex: a certain vein/ artery drains the leg/arms)
- 5 main functions
o Transport oxygen and nutrients
o Removes waste (CO2)
o Temperature maintanence
o Carry hormones (hormones which endocrine glands release)
o Fluid Balance
- Heart is located in the mediastinum
- Heart is enclosed in a sac called the pericardial sac.
o The outer layer is made up of Parietal Pericardium
o The layer inside is made up of Visceral Pericardium Both these layers have layers in them.
In the visceral pericardium, the space between the serous parietal layer and
visceral parietal layer is the Pericardial Cavity
Pericardial Cavity: Gives more space for heart to move around
- Myocardium is the actual heart muscle
- Endocardium is the layer which surrounds the 4 chambers of the heart.
- Heart structure
o Right/Left Atrium
o Right/Left Ventricle
- Blood Circulation:
o Blood comes into the right atrium by the means of the superior and inferior vena cava.
Once the blood is in the right atrium, a signal is passed and once the muscles in the right
atrium contract, it causes the tricuspid valve to open and the blood enters the right
ventricle. From the right ventricle, the blood goes out through the pulmonary artery to
the Lungs where it is oxygenated. Once oxygenated, the blood enters the left atrium by
the means of pulmonary veins. Once in the left atrium, the muscles contract forcing the
bicuspid valve to open causing the blood to enter the left ventricle. From the left
ventricle, the blood goes out through the Aorta to the rest of the body.
- Right Atrium:
o Contains the structures:
Superior/inferior vena cava – Both bring venous blood from body to the right
o Cardiac blood supply
The myocardium is supplied by blood by the right/left coronary arteries.
The coronary veins which bring blood back to heart empty into Coronary sinus
Coronary sinus: drainage. It collects the deoxygenated blood and dumps into
- Atrial Septum seperates the right and the left atrium. In this septum, Fossa Ovale is located.
o Fossa ovale is a hole which provides oxygen in the fetus.
- Right ventricle:
o Tricuspid valve
The valve between the right atrium and right ventricle. Allows blood to go from
atrium to ventricle.
o The tension on the chordinae tendinae caused by the papillary muscle prevents the
valve from putting the blood back up into the right atrium.
o Pulmonary Artery
Takes blood from right ventricle to lungs
o Pulmonary semi-lunar valve
When the ventricle relaxes, blood comes back into the ventricle into these cusps
and they seal off the opening back into the ventricle. - Left Atrium
o The Pulmonary veins connect to the left atrium, which brings blood into it.
- Left Ventricle
o Bicuspid valve
Valve between left atrium and left ventricle. Pumps blood into left atrium when
signalled by the AV node.
o When left ventricle relaxes, the blood flows back into the aorta. The aortic semilunar
valves fill with blood. The pressure of the valve opens the right/left coronary arteries
and these arteries take blood to the heart.
- Heart surface markings:
o Base – Superior border
o Apex – inferior end
o Coronary sulcus- it marks the division between the two atriums and the two ventricles
The coronary sinus located here.
- EXCITABILITY AND BLOOD VESSELS ON PAPER:
- ARTERIES TO THE UPPER LIMB AND TORSO:
o From the Aorta -> Braciocephalic Artery -> Right/Left Common Corotid Artery &
Right/left Subclavain artery
o Common carotid artery (left/right): These arteries go up to the neck. Once they reach
the thyroid cartilage of larynx, they become Internal/external carotid artery.
Internal Carotid Ar