Anatomy Muscular System Test Notes

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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 2031
Nicolette Bradley

Muscular System Muscle Types Skeletal Termed striated with Parallel muscle fibers Under Conscious control of the nervous system Smooth Non-striated with non-parallel muscle fibers Under unconscious control. Cardiac Striated with non-parallel muscle fibers Involuntary muscle of the heart Under conscious control Function of Skeletal Muscle Movement Contraction causes and inhibits movement Posture/Balance Helps maintain posture and balance Protection Abdominal muscles protect the abdominal organs Eyes squint/close to protect underlying tissue Temperature Muscles can contract to produce heat Types of Muscular Contractions Isometric Muscle tension with no movement Example: Plank Isotonic Concentric Tension by shortening the muscle Example: Curling a dumbbell. Eccentric Tension by lengthening the muscle Example: Negatives Levers Contain 3 parts to it Fulcrum: joint where movement occurs Force: muscle or gravity that is applied to the moveable bone. Resistance: the weight being moved 3 types of levers 1 class similar to a seesaw Fulcrum in the middle with weight/resistance on either side Example: Head extension Fulcrum: Occipital condyl1s & C Force: posterior muscles of the occipital bone nd Resistance: Weight of the head. 2 Class Similar to a wheelbarrow Fulcrum at the end of the lever, with resistance close to the fulcrum/force further away Example: Plantar Flexion (Standing on your toes) Fulcrum: Metatarsal-Phalangeal joint Force: Attachment of superficial plantar flexor muscles (Gastrocnemius) Resistance: Weight of the body. 3 class most of them Fulcrum at the end of the lever, with resistance toward the end of the lever and force between the resistances. Example: Elbow flexion by the biceps brachii Fulcrum: elbow joint Force: Attachment of the biceps brachii on the radius Resistance: Weight of the forearm **Basic Knowledge** O: Origin Proximal attachment of the trunk (Closest to the trunk) I: Insertion Distal attachment of the trunk (Furthest from the trunk) A: Action The action of the muscle on one or more articulations Skeletal Muscles: Upper Torso Shoulder Girdle Trapezius Origin: Begins at the occipital bone, ligamentum nuchae, and the spines of the thoracic vertebrae Insertion: Ends at the clavicle, acromion process, and the spine of the scapula Action: Elevates the scapula, provides upward rotation of the shoulder, adducts the scapula Example: Shoulder shrug Rhomboid (Major and Minor) Origin: Begins at the spinous proces5 of C1an5 T -T Insertion: Ends at the medial border of the scapula Action: Adducts the scapula, provides downward rotation of the shoulder Example: During a chin-up the rhomboids draw the scapulas medial border down to the spinal column Serratus Anterior Shares with the external abdominal oblique Origin: Begins at the lateral surface of the upper 8 ribs Insertion: Ends at the medial border of the scapula Action: Abducts the scapula Example: Boxer Muscle used to help throw a punch Levator Scapula Origin: Begins at the transverse process of C -C 1 4 Insertion: Ends at the superior angle of scapula Action: Elevates the scapula Example: used with trapezius in shoulder shrug Pectoralis Minor Origin: Begins at the outer surface of ribs 3-5 Insertion: Ends at the coracoid process of the scapula Action: Abduction of the scapula, and provides downward rotation of the shoulder.Shoulder Joint Deltoid 3 parts to the deltoid Spinal Head (Posterior) Origin: Begins at the spine of the scapula Insertion: Ends at the deltoid tuberosity Action: shoulder extension and lateral rotation of humerus Acromial Head (Lateral) Origin: Begins at the acromion process of scapula Insertion: Ends at the deltoid tuberosity Action: Shoulder abduction Clavicular Head (Anterior) Origin: Begins at the clavicle Insertion: Ends at the deltoid tuberosity Action: Shoulder flexion, and medial rotation of humerus Pectoralis Major most anterior part. Origin: Begins at the medial part of clavicle/costal cartilage of ribs 1-6 Insertion: Ends at the bicipital groove of the humerus Action: shoulder extension/flexion, medial rotation/adduction/horizontal flexion of humerus Latissimus Dorsi Origin: Begins at the back of the lumbar/thoracic vertebrae Insertion: Ends at the bicipital groove of the humerus (anterior portion) Action: Shoulder extension, adduction/medial rotation of the humerus Rotat
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