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KINE 2049- Chapter 1-8 Midterm 2 Review

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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 2049
Merv Mosher

Chapter 1- The Scientific Process Wilbur and Orville Wrights success in flying the first plane resulted in the start of aeronautics Research plays the role of expanding our knowledge and understanding of human movement Organization of the Textbook Research reports follow a standard format o Introduction and Literature review-presents information on the philosophy of research o Methods- focuses on experimental design o Results- how to interpret the data o Discussion- presents topics that the researcher must consider when conducting research Research in Sport and Exercise This is a young discipline and is developing Why Study Research Methods? Enhance your understanding of other courses Read and interpret journal articles Parity Claims Careful wording that makes a product seem better than another one Testimonials Statement providing evidence to support a claim Claim that these products work for all people is not necessarily valid Statistical information Statistics can be made to say just about anything Gaining Knowledge 6 Step Process o Ask a new question o Make initial observations o Conduct a systematic investigation o Analyze new information o Interpret the findings and o Integrate the findings with previous knowledge Theories A set of related statements that explain a set of facts Galens animal spirit theory, proven wrong when microscopes were invented Galvani conducted electrical experiments on frogs- nervous system is related to electricity Theories serve 2 general roles Help organize info and facts about events/ behaviours Used to make predictions that provide the basis for new research Evaluating Theories Three factors help researchers judge theories: Precision, simplicity and testability o Precision- how accurate it describes behaviour or make predictions o Simplicity- # of qualifiers or special conditions to meet before a prediction can be made Occams Razor-explanations should be kept as simple as possible o Testability- the extent in which empirical methods may be used to gather evidence about a theory Theories in the News The Ultra Violet Light Theory for the mysterious disappearance of frogs o Thinning of ozone layer. UV thought to be dangerous to amphibians Two social theories for inappropritate rising intonation o Common among adolescent females, Valley Speak- inappropriate rising intonations o T1-approval gaining device for when speaking to authority o T2- Trendy speech influenced by peers and b/c parents/adults disapprove Three theories for origin of HIV o T1- new viruses develop from old ones o T2- viruses affecting one species may affect another o T3- viruses may seem new when appearing in large amounts of people Theories in Sport and Exercise Sciences Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness DOMS is a muscle sorness that occurs 24-48 hours after strenuous eccentric exercise o Pain and stiffness for 2-3 days o Connective tissue damage-exercise causes stress to CT resulting in small tears o Muscle tear theory-tissue damage in muscle fibres rather than in CT o Muscle spasm-DOMS is localized spasms- incr muscle tension and reduce range of motions Static stretching does not prevent DOMS Benefits of Random Practice Random schedules- golf club switch example Elaboration theory- random practice helps user discriminate subtle differences Memory reconstruction theory-action plans are created when practicing, but with random practice the plans are forced to be thrown away. Process of construction of plan and tossing results in effective learning Mental Practice Cognitive rehearsal of physical skills Neuromuscular theory- when mentally practicing a skill, signals are still sent to the muscles, but at a low enough level that no movements are made Cognitive theory-mental practice helps better understand the goal thus making practice more effective Hypotheses Prediction based on the theory Levels of Knowledge Scientia- latin word for Science- means having knowledge Developments of scientific knowledge has many levels o Description of behaviour, building toward the prediction of behaviour, control of behaviour, and the explanation of behaviour Research to Describe CVD accounts for 50% of deaths in US Agencies gather this information- it says nothing about who is susceptible but can help with comparing with past trends Research to Predict By demonstrating a relationship between variables we can make predictions Research to Control If we understand how things relate, we can control events Research to Explain Hardest one to develop b/c it requires an understanding of cause and effect relationships We need to explain why things happen, not just be able to do it Deductive and Inductive Reasoning Deductive reasoning- logically drawing conclusions- general to specific Inductive reasoning- specific to general o This method is preferred b/c of its reliance on empirical methods Scientific Axioms Axioms are general in nature but provide a basis from which knowledge is developed Amorality- this is controversial b/c some experiments are seen as wrong by certain groups Caution-scientist should be careful when gathering data Consistency-the universe is orderly and remains constant for long periods Determinism- the cause of all events can be determined for certain reasons Empiricism-knowledge should be based on observations of the world and not opinions Intelligibility- when systematically studied the world can be understood by humankind Objectivity- scientist must remain impartial when making observations and interpretations Parsimony-all things being equal, the simplest and most concise explanations are preferred Physical Reality-space, time, and matter are real and therefore subject to study Quantifiability- what exist, exist to the extent that it can be observed and measured Scepticism- knowledge no matter how developed is always open to criticism. Knowledge is not absolute and always in a state of flux Chapter 2- Research: Questions and Types The Introduction and Literature Review Section of a Research Report Two main functions o Two present a discussion of the question under investigation o To present a review of the literature relevant to question The first goal describe the question and establish the foundation for the question o Discuss current known facts and show how investigation with contribute to the body of knowledge Second goal reviewing literature is accomplished by citing previously published reports Providing references serves three purposes o Help distinguish between facts and, speculation and questions o Provides a source for factual information o Provide the location of a report in a book or journal The length varies from a few paragraphs to a whole chapter like in dissertations o Journal articles are usually short 2-3 paragraphs Journals have a page limit- must be concise o Dissertation or thesis have no page numbers- encouraged to elaborate Research Questions Questions are fuel for research. Qs originate from three sources Theories, Previous research, or Practical problems Editors Viewpoint First Category- Conceptual rationale of study Over- Exclusive Error-author fails to describe the underlying theoretical principles that are driving the research question Over- Inclusive Error- author describes too many facets of theory, lacks focus Lack of Theoretical or conceptual rationale- fatal mistake Second Category-rationale for why certain variables are included in the design of a study Frequent mistake- Introducing an independent variable in the Method or Results sections without previously explaining why this variable is theoretically relevant Final Category- how the research in question contributes to the knowledge base by going beyond previous research Must communicate exactly how the study goes beyond previous work Theories An important function- to help researcher ask new questions like making predictions Motor Schema Theory- well known theory developed to explain movement control processes and factors that affect motor skill learning o Ex. Practicing variety of ways to learn a skill is better than one form of practice
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