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2049 practice test

10 Pages

Kinesiology & Health Science
Course Code
KINE 2049
Merv Mosher

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Communication Research Practice Questions For each of the following questions, select the best answer from the given alternative choices. Additional instructions are given as necessary. Read each question and all alternatives carefully before selecting an answer. Logic of Quantitative Research 1.1 How are "everyday ways of knowing" (like intuition, tradition, and authority) different from scholarly ways of knowing (research)? • c. Research examines its assumptions; everyday ways of knowing do not. 1.2 The goal of behavioral (quantitative) approaches to communication research is best described as which of the following? a. Explaining, predicting, and controlling communication behavior. 1.3 Which of the following statements is the most accurate description of the hypothetico-deductive research method? d. The researcher develops a formal theory from which a specific hypothesis is formulated and tested by observation and measurement, leading to generalizations which are then used to refine the formal theory. 1.4 Assume that a researcher observes a relationship between sunspot activity and stock market prices; specifically, when sunspot activity is high, stock market prices fall; when it is low, stock prices rise. Can the researcher assert that sunspot activity influences stock prices based on this observation alone? b. No; other explanations have not been ruled out. Definitions 2.1 "A characteristic, attribute, or behavior of an individual that takes on different values for different individuals and can be measured or observed" best defines which of the following? • e. variable 2.2 "A possible state or level of a variable" best defines which of the following? d. value 2.3 "A statement of inquiry about a communication-related concept that asks how to describe it or how it is related to other concepts" best defines which of the following? b. research question 2.4 "The process of explaining and defining the concepts within a theory" best defines which of the following? a. conceptualization 2.5 "The process of defining theoretical concepts so that they can be observed or measured" best defines which of the following? b. operationalization 2.6 "The process of observing phenomena and using those observations to make generalizations which then serve to help refine a formal theory" best defines which of the following? d. induction 2.7 "The set of individuals or objects whose characteristics or behavior are of interest" best defines which of the following? e. population 2.8 "The individuals or objects selected for measurement or observation" best defines which of the following? a. sample Simple Scenario: Theory Building Read the following paragraph and answer the next three questions A researcher suspects that television sets emit energy that damages people's vision. To test her theory, she observes a sample of children (none of whom wear glasses) and measures how far away they sit from the television when they watch. Two years later, she observes the children again, this time seeing how many are wearing glasses. Her data suggest that young children who sit close to the television set are more often diagnosed as needing glasses than children who sit further away, and announces that her theory is supported. 3.1 In this situation, "distance from the television while watching" is what kind of variable? • b. independent variable 3.2 What kind of variable is "whether or not a child wears glasses"? c. dependent variable 3.3 Suppose a critic disagrees with the researcher, saying that it is possible that previously existing eye problems in the children may result in both sitting close to the TV and in needing glasses. "Previous existence of eye problems" is, in this case, an example of what kind of variable? d. antecedent variable 3.4 Which of the following is a characteristic of a "good" hypothesis? e. all of the above 3.5 What assertion about the variables being studied does the "null hypothesis" make? c. That there is no relationship between them. Levels of Measurement For the next five questions, identify the correct level of measurement for the variable that is described. 4.1 Cash on hand, measured in dollars. • d. ratio 4.2 Beauty pageant results, measured as "Miss America," "first runner-up," "third runner-up," "fourth runner-up," and "not a finalist." b. ordinal 4.3 Travel time to work each day, measured in hours and minutes. d. ratio 4.4 Communication apprehension, measured using 12 5-point Likert-type scale items. c. interval 4.5 The answer to the question "Do you live on-campus?" measured as "Yes" or "No". a. nominal 4.6 Which of the following are characteristics of interval data? d. all of the above 4.7 Which of the following are characteristics of nominal data? e. a. and b. only Fill-In-the-Blanks For the next seven questions, select the answer containing the word or words that most correctly fill in the blanks. 5.1 "Operationalization" is the process of translating ____________ into _____________ so that they can be measured, manipulated, or observed. • c. variables; measurements 5.2 "Aggressiveness is related to age," is an example of a _____________ hypothesis of ______________. b. non-directional; association 5.3 In an _______________, the ______________ variable is always manipulated. e. experiment, independent 5.4 ___________ observation involves the examination of communication artifacts or archival data. b. Indirect 5.5 The proportion of a certain value within a population is called a population ____________; the proportion of a certain value within a sample is called a sample _____________. d. parameter; statistic 5.6 Evaluating the external validity of a study involves judgments about the _________________ of the sample, the _____________ of the research setting, and the ________________ of the research method and results. e. representativeness; ecological validity; replicability 5.7 Methods of random sampling include ________________, ____________, and ________________ sampling. d. stratified, cluster, systematic 5.8 An experiment with two independent variables is generally referred to as a _________________. c. factorial design Sim
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