KINE 2049 Study Notes
FINDING SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS IN A LOGICAL, ORDERLY, AND SYSTEMATIC FASHION***
Professions always need research
Never satisfied with status quo always experimenting
Research done more by computers
Computers work together to process issues EXAMPLE: scientists and researchers hook up online
to fight SARS
Not everyone likes computers: China look at only certain websites software to protect from
Newspapers make money greatly exaggerated only 25% report that they have funding
4 Significant Points in Human History
Language: allowed humans to communicate ideas
Writing: save ideas, pass on generationally (China, India, Egypt King kept it secret)
Printing Press: mass distribution of ideas, high class rebelled scientific method comes to be
Computers: allow to store, search, analyse large information, fast revolutionize
1. Describe why studying research methods is valuable, both academically and in daily life.
research that we further our understanding and knowledge of the world we live in and change
the manner in which we live
a strong foundation for classroom learning and individual research projects
Research helps us find new and more efficient way of doing everyday tasks and professional
endeavours ( Ex. Finding the most efficient way for an elite athlete to raise their VO2Max)
advertisements that are intended to convince us that one product is superior to another or that
a product is effective
by studying research methods we start to develop a more critical thought process and begin
distinguishing factual information from quasi-factual information and opinion not based on fact
BE SKEPTICAL THINKERS
purpose: obtain knowledge develop new
knowledge, modify present knowledge, correct old
knowledge 2. Identify the sub disciplines that form sport exercise sciences.
A) Adapted physical education: where physical activities and sports are modified to meet needs of the
B) Biomechanics: Is the application of mechanical principles to living organisms, such as humans and
C) Exercise Physiology & Biochemistry: which emphasize the analysis of chronic and acute physiological
adaptations to exercise.
D) Growth & Development: where physical and psychological maturation and aging are related to
E) Sport History: which traces important developments in sport and athletics.
F) Sport Nutrition: where the impact of nutrition on athletic performance is studied.
G) Sport Sociology: which examines the impact on sports and athletics in society.
H) Measurement & Evaluation: in which statistical techniques and procedures for evaluating movement
are developed and assessed.
I) Motor Behaviour: which further divided among Motor Learning, Motor Control, and Sport
Psychology, where the conditions that affect the acquisition and production of skilled motor behaviours
3. State the six steps in research.
(1) ask a new question
(2) make initial observations
(3) conduct a systematic investigation
(4) analyze the new information
(5) interpret the findings
(6) investigate the findings with previous knowledge
4. Define and explain the term theory.
Set of related statements that explains a set of facts
Theories help researchers describe, predict and explain events or behaviours
(1) they help organize information and facts about event and behaviours
(2) they are used to make predictions that provide basis for new research. When the results of
empirical tests support a theory, it is strengthened.
A theory is weakened when tests fail to find results predicted by the theory
Most researchers believe that there are only competing theories of differing levels of
Absolute proof is difficult to achieve because we never know what knowledge the future might
5. Differentiate between a theory and a hypothesis.
Theory: is a statement that organizes a set of related facts
Hypothesis: prediction stemming from a theory - based on existing knowledge(two types)
Directional Research Hypothesis: every research starts has a direction I think smoking bad
Non directional (Null) Hypothesis: believe that it is neutral then test it ONLY ONE THAT CAN BE
TESTED STATISTICALLY Ex. The Big Bang theory of the birth of the universe suggests that the universe originated with a
vast explosion of matter. One research hypothesis based on this theory predicts that if the
universe did indeed begin with an explosion, then the universe should be expanding.
Three factors to help evaluate theories
Precision how accurately a theory describes behaviour or makes predictions
Simplicity of a theory the number of qualifiers or special conditions that must be met before a theory
can be used to make accurate predictions
Occams razor - principle that implies explanations should be kept as simple as possible with the fewest
number of assumptions
Testability the extent to which empirical methods may be used to gather evidence about a theory
Random and blocked practise blocked practise schedule the learner practises one skill over many
identical trails, random practise order is continually varied. Research shows that skills are most
effectively learned following a random practise schedule
6. Describe the different levels of knowledge.
a) Description of Behaviour: 50% of deaths in Canada because of Coronary Heart Disease
simplest form of research knowledge.
no attempt to predict or explain causes of behaviour
comparisons can be made with past measurements so that trends or unusual occurrences can
b) Prediction of Behaviour: people who die of heart attacks overweight, smoking, lazy CHD
Predictions are more powerful then descriptions
An important step forward in the advancement of knowledge is demonstrating the relationship
behaviours events found to be systematically related to another, then predictions become
c) Control of Behaviour: exert control exercise, lose weight, stop smoking, eat right lower chance of
understand how events are related to each other, we can begin to control events
In order to control, we must understand relationships so we can affect variables to produce the
d) Explanation of Behaviour: numerous theories of what causes heart attacks describe what happens
cant give cause
used to explain why these relationships between variables occur or exist
Explanatory knowledge is more difficult to develop than predictive, control, or descriptive
knowledge requires an understanding of the cause and effect relationships 7. Explain the difference between inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning.
commonly defined as the method of logically drawing conclusions
Observations of general facts are shaped to explain specific occurrences
Problem: deductive reasoning is many of the assumptions made about behaviour may be
difficult to test and may in fact be wrong
Observations progress from general to specific.
emphasizes empirical observations (data) and view science as working from data to theory
Observations progress from specific to general
Limitation: empirical observations are tied to the conditions under which theyre made,
therefore facts or theories are limited to the circumstances under which theyre drawn
**Historically both inductive and deductive methods have contributed to the development of
knowledge Inductive methods are preferred because of a reliance on empirical observations
NNT: Number needed to Treat LOW NNT=GOOD
1000 people in study 500 drug, 500 placebo
15 people had heart attacks (10 placebo, 5 drug group)
Relative risk reduction 50% NOT CORRECT
10/500 placebo group = 2%
5/500 drug group = 1%
Absolute risk reduction = 1%
NNT: to prevent 1 heart attack, 100 people would have to take the drug
NNH: Number needed to Harm HIGH NNH=GOOD
Similar concept to NNT
Parity claim careful working of an advertisement that gives the reader the impression that one
product is superior to another, when actually the wording means that the two products are equal
Testimonial statement providing evidence in support of a claim not what average person will
Statistical information statistics can be made to say just about anything
Research an attitude and a process that results in progressive learning and knowledge building
Two theories provide an explanation for the benefits of random practise:
elaboration theory argues that random practise helps the learner better discriminate the subtle
differences between similar skills
Memory reconstruction theory suggests that when practising skills, action plans are
constructed in memory, when practising randomly, the learner constructs an action plan, is
forced to forget it and develops a new action plan for the next skill, this process of action plan
constructions, forgetting and action plan constructions results in effective learning