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Midterm #1 Review Midterm 1 info, but can be used to study for Midterm 2 to review as well since we need to know everything since the beginning of the course.

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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 2049
Merv Mosher

KINE 2049 Study Notes Research: FINDING SOLUTIONS TO PROBLEMS IN A LOGICAL, ORDERLY, AND SYSTEMATIC FASHION*** Professions always need research Never satisfied with status quo always experimenting Research done more by computers Computers work together to process issues EXAMPLE: scientists and researchers hook up online to fight SARS Not everyone likes computers: China look at only certain websites software to protect from this protection Newspapers make money greatly exaggerated only 25% report that they have funding 4 Significant Points in Human History Language: allowed humans to communicate ideas Writing: save ideas, pass on generationally (China, India, Egypt King kept it secret) Printing Press: mass distribution of ideas, high class rebelled scientific method comes to be Computers: allow to store, search, analyse large information, fast revolutionize CHAPTER 1 1. Describe why studying research methods is valuable, both academically and in daily life. research that we further our understanding and knowledge of the world we live in and change the manner in which we live a strong foundation for classroom learning and individual research projects Research helps us find new and more efficient way of doing everyday tasks and professional endeavours ( Ex. Finding the most efficient way for an elite athlete to raise their VO2Max) advertisements that are intended to convince us that one product is superior to another or that a product is effective by studying research methods we start to develop a more critical thought process and begin distinguishing factual information from quasi-factual information and opinion not based on fact BE SKEPTICAL THINKERS purpose: obtain knowledge develop new knowledge, modify present knowledge, correct old knowledge 2. Identify the sub disciplines that form sport exercise sciences. A) Adapted physical education: where physical activities and sports are modified to meet needs of the disabled. B) Biomechanics: Is the application of mechanical principles to living organisms, such as humans and animals. C) Exercise Physiology & Biochemistry: which emphasize the analysis of chronic and acute physiological adaptations to exercise. D) Growth & Development: where physical and psychological maturation and aging are related to movement . E) Sport History: which traces important developments in sport and athletics. F) Sport Nutrition: where the impact of nutrition on athletic performance is studied. G) Sport Sociology: which examines the impact on sports and athletics in society. H) Measurement & Evaluation: in which statistical techniques and procedures for evaluating movement are developed and assessed. I) Motor Behaviour: which further divided among Motor Learning, Motor Control, and Sport Psychology, where the conditions that affect the acquisition and production of skilled motor behaviours are studied. 3. State the six steps in research. (1) ask a new question (2) make initial observations (3) conduct a systematic investigation (4) analyze the new information (5) interpret the findings (6) investigate the findings with previous knowledge 4. Define and explain the term theory. Set of related statements that explains a set of facts Theories help researchers describe, predict and explain events or behaviours (1) they help organize information and facts about event and behaviours (2) they are used to make predictions that provide basis for new research. When the results of empirical tests support a theory, it is strengthened. A theory is weakened when tests fail to find results predicted by the theory Most researchers believe that there are only competing theories of differing levels of acceptance Absolute proof is difficult to achieve because we never know what knowledge the future might hold. 5. Differentiate between a theory and a hypothesis. Theory: is a statement that organizes a set of related facts Hypothesis: prediction stemming from a theory - based on existing knowledge(two types) Directional Research Hypothesis: every research starts has a direction I think smoking bad Non directional (Null) Hypothesis: believe that it is neutral then test it ONLY ONE THAT CAN BE TESTED STATISTICALLY Ex. The Big Bang theory of the birth of the universe suggests that the universe originated with a vast explosion of matter. One research hypothesis based on this theory predicts that if the universe did indeed begin with an explosion, then the universe should be expanding. Three factors to help evaluate theories Precision how accurately a theory describes behaviour or makes predictions Simplicity of a theory the number of qualifiers or special conditions that must be met before a theory can be used to make accurate predictions Occams razor - principle that implies explanations should be kept as simple as possible with the fewest number of assumptions Testability the extent to which empirical methods may be used to gather evidence about a theory Random and blocked practise blocked practise schedule the learner practises one skill over many identical trails, random practise order is continually varied. Research shows that skills are most effectively learned following a random practise schedule Hypothesis Theory Law 6. Describe the different levels of knowledge. a) Description of Behaviour: 50% of deaths in Canada because of Coronary Heart Disease simplest form of research knowledge. no attempt to predict or explain causes of behaviour comparisons can be made with past measurements so that trends or unusual occurrences can be identified. b) Prediction of Behaviour: people who die of heart attacks overweight, smoking, lazy CHD Predictions are more powerful then descriptions An important step forward in the advancement of knowledge is demonstrating the relationship among variables behaviours events found to be systematically related to another, then predictions become possible c) Control of Behaviour: exert control exercise, lose weight, stop smoking, eat right lower chance of CHD understand how events are related to each other, we can begin to control events In order to control, we must understand relationships so we can affect variables to produce the intended results d) Explanation of Behaviour: numerous theories of what causes heart attacks describe what happens cant give cause used to explain why these relationships between variables occur or exist Explanatory knowledge is more difficult to develop than predictive, control, or descriptive knowledge requires an understanding of the cause and effect relationships 7. Explain the difference between inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning. Deductive Reasoning: commonly defined as the method of logically drawing conclusions Observations of general facts are shaped to explain specific occurrences Problem: deductive reasoning is many of the assumptions made about behaviour may be difficult to test and may in fact be wrong Observations progress from general to specific. Inductive Reasoning: emphasizes empirical observations (data) and view science as working from data to theory Observations progress from specific to general Limitation: empirical observations are tied to the conditions under which theyre made, therefore facts or theories are limited to the circumstances under which theyre drawn **Historically both inductive and deductive methods have contributed to the development of knowledge Inductive methods are preferred because of a reliance on empirical observations NNT: Number needed to Treat LOW NNT=GOOD 1000 people in study 500 drug, 500 placebo 15 people had heart attacks (10 placebo, 5 drug group) Relative risk reduction 50% NOT CORRECT 10/500 placebo group = 2% 5/500 drug group = 1% Absolute risk reduction = 1% NNT: to prevent 1 heart attack, 100 people would have to take the drug NNH: Number needed to Harm HIGH NNH=GOOD Similar concept to NNT Definitions: Parity claim careful working of an advertisement that gives the reader the impression that one product is superior to another, when actually the wording means that the two products are equal Testimonial statement providing evidence in support of a claim not what average person will experience Statistical information statistics can be made to say just about anything Research an attitude and a process that results in progressive learning and knowledge building Priciple Two theories provide an explanation for the benefits of random practise: elaboration theory argues that random practise helps the learner better discriminate the subtle differences between similar skills Memory reconstruction theory suggests that when practising skills, action plans are constructed in memory, when practising randomly, the learner constructs an action plan, is forced to forget it and develops a new action plan for the next skill, this process of action plan constructions, forgetting and action plan constructions results in effective learning
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