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Research Methods Study notes midterm 1

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York University
Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 2049
Merv Mosher

Research is about finding solutions to problems. A profession only stays and grows if there is constant research happening. A Profession advances only by learning new knowledge. Ex. Doctors from 100 years ago and doctors now. Be sceptical -Do not always trust the media they oftain right stuff that will have the biggest impact on the reader so they can sell more copies/make more money -Most research is done on young white healthy males -Advertisers use -Parity claimes (nothing better) -Testimonials (you will look like this) -Statistics (30% less fat, but less fat then what) Articals “Stacking and stoppers”- In sport the most important positions are given to white people “International bias”- Some events involving judging are predetermined even befor they happen NNT 1000 people -500 placebo -500 given the drug Placebo 10 people get sick Drug 5 people get sick (relative) Difference is 50% between 10 and 5 but… 10 out of 500 is 2% of people got sick 5 out of 500 is 1% of people got sick (absolute) Therefore there is only a change in 1% of people who get sick The drug only makes a 1% difference Therefore for one person to not get sick 100 people would have to take the drug. NNT=100 NNH-Number needed to harm - How many need to be treated to cause harm (side effects) Ex. For every 400 people that are treated there is one case of side effects NNH=400 You want a Low NNT and a High NNH Research Process- Organized attempt to obtain/gather knowledge - Develop new knowledge - Modify present knowledge - Correct old knowledge To stimulate research we ask questions. Five ways of gathering knowlage “ways of knowing” 1. Custom and tradition - If we are good Santa gives us presents, we were good and we got presents so therefore Santa must be real 2. Authority -Teachers/Police/Religious leaders 3. Personal Experience -Learning for experience and your own mistakes 4. Reasoning -Deductive general to specific application -Inductive specific cases to general assumption 5. Scientific Inquiry (experimental) - Identify the problem - Develop a hypothesis - Gather/ Analyse info/data - See if your hypothesis was right - Conclusion Science/ Scientific method- It doesn’t refer to the content of the subject but rather how information is gathered. Physics is not science because it is physics its science because of how the knowledge was gathered. Assumptions of science 1. There is a real and knowable universe 2. The Univers operates according to understandable laws 3. The laws are immutable (don’t change) 4. The laws can be understood through careful observation/experiments/research Characteristics of research - Based on Empiric
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