Coaching Part E.docx

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York University
Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 2475
Dave Chambers

5/26/2013 12:08:00 PM  Part E: Teaching and Learning  Learning  Good coaches are good teachers  Teaching  Praise effort and correct performance  Give simple and precise feedback  The learning process  Athletes o Gather info  Whole vs part method o Skill should be seen in its entirety first then it can be broken down into parts o Better to finish up practicing skill as a whole  Chaining o Learning and connecting parts that make up a complex skill o Athlete learns to link various distinct parts of the skill o You can start with any link in the chain  Feedback  Shaping o Method where learning of a skill takes place gradually o Skill is briefly demonstrated and them simplified to include only the most important parts; missing parts are added gradually  Grouping o Athletes with similar skill levels learn faster when grouped together  Mental feedback  Mass vs distributed  Practice  Environment o Good environment enhances learning  Select the skill o Factors: age, skill level, maturation, motivation o Progression: simple to complex, explain, demonstrate, practice, feedback o * keep in mind short term memory  Observational skills o What to observe o How to observe o Stages:  Pre-observation: must know the skill yourself  Identify purpose of the kill  Break the skill into phases  Identify key elements of each phase  Develop an observation plan  Observation  Scanning strategies  Appropriate position  Number of observations  Types of feedback  Evaluation o Coach assesses the quality of the performance (general) o Makes some kind of evaluation  Prescriptive o Coach tells the athlete how to execute the skill the next time  Descriptive o Coach describes to the athlete what he/she has just done  Bandwidth o Outside 25% worse before feedback  Feedback: Key points  Positive and constructive: the praise sandwich (say something good, bad, then good again)  Specific feedback, not general  External focus of attention  Summary vs instantaneous  Engage athlete cognitively  Verbal vs non verbal  Feedback for successful performance  Does the athlete understand why they have been successful?  Have the athlete repeat the successful performance  If yes to both then move on to the next level of progression of skill  Stages of skill development  Beginner  Intermediate  Advanced  Classifying a skill  Closed vs open o Closed: movement are performed in an environment that in both stable and predictable  Eg. Archery, bowling, diving o Open: in an environment that is predictable but changing  Eg. Skiing, golf  Discrete o Easily determined beginning and ending  Eg. Throwing and catching a ball  Serial o A series of discrete actions linked together  Eg. Gymnastics & figure skating  Continuous o Actions are repetitive o No discrete beginning and ending  Eg. Swimming, running. Cycling  Part E: Planning a Practice  Practice Variables  Breaking Skills Into Parts o Part  Distinctive parts practiced separately o Progressive part  Parts os a skill gradually integrated into larger blocks o Whole  All parts are practiced together in correct order  Having Pauses in Repetitions o Massed practice  Task or movement practiced continuously o Distributed practices  Task or movement practiced distributed a longer period of time  Better than massed practice o Shaping Practices  Skill takes place gradually o Chaining practices  Skill broken down into parts  Variety of tasks practiced o Constant practice  Same task repeated  Eg. Throwing the ball 10x o Variable practice  Repeated movements but one aspect changed  Eg. Ball speed to target o Random practice  Don’t practice same tasks 2 consecutive times  Blocked Practice vs Problem Soling Practice o Blocked Practice  Repeating the same task under the same conditions o Problem solving practices  May nor be as a fast as blocked practice  May lead to superior learning & retention skills  Video: Hockey Coach (Dave King)  Coachers are teachers, leaders, organizers  Proper and positive preparation prevents poor performance  Teaching Process  Create conditions favourable for learning o Drills progressions o Safety issues o Activity level of athletes o Where to stand/move around o Equipment needs  Explanation and demonstration o Show and tell – what is successful performance o Relevancy o Use of cues – internal/external o Awareness of learning styles  Observation o Patterns of activity o Individual performance o Success rate acceptable o Scan different locations  Interven
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