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Midterm 1 Ch1, 3, 12.docx

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York University
Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 3000
Joseph Baker

Chapter 1 Introducing Sport and Exercise Psychology - Profession to help young athletes need to know how psychological factors may influence performance + motivation, intervention skills to design + implement an effective intervention - For example someone who is experiencing anxiety, the consultant may need to know relationship between different types of anxiety + self- confidence, different strategies to deal with anxiety and how to put it into practice - Myths: only athletes w/serious mental problems need sport/exercise psychologist and that all sport psychologist work w/elite athletes to enhance sport performance Introduction - Sport + exercise are important in Canadian life  Complex w/many sub discipline - Sport + exercise psyc has gained national crediting especially in discipline of Kinesiology as core subject to be covered Nature of Sport + Exercise Psychology - Most university suggest it is branch of sport science that involves scientific study of human behavior in sport + practical application of knowledge in sport - Others say it is science in which principles of psychology are applied in sport/exercise setting - Majority of theories is dominated by field of psychology - Includes cognitive, clinical, counselling, physiological, social, developmental, health psychology Positive Psychology in Sport + Exercise - Common belief S + E focuses on abnormal/problematic behavior due to medical model to reduce/eliminate pathological mental behavior - Seligman criticized psychology for focusing too much on mental illness rather than human side of strength + personal growth  Positive psychology can be subjective experience; well being, satisfaction, fulfillment, pleasure, happiness  How does support of team help people to thrive, playing on team contribute to self acceptance - Most of S + E directed to enhancing performance, social, physical well being, positive emotion - Peak performance is about psychological, physical, emotional strength - Research devoted to optimistic disposition, flow states, enjoyment, satisfaction, growth, challenge Careers in S + E psychology - Increase awareness of S + E, teaching basic principles of S + E psychology, helping athletes to develop + psychological skills to enhance performance/working w/clients to enhance exercise behavior + well being - Research to describe predict, explain cognition, emotion under ethnical guidelines  In presentations for discussion about strengths + limitations of theories, methods, paradigms - Consulting: helping ind, team optimize performance, change PA behavior, manage sport + life demands, enhance well being  Canadian uni don’t use sport psychologist on limited basis  Also in fitness industry, rehabilitation, business community  Education, counselling, clinical Standards of conduct + practitioner competencies in S + E psychology - Ethics is matters of right and wrong as they relate to human behavior  Nature, terms, parameters of relationship btwn consultant + client  At best assist athletes and at worst do no harm - Principle 1: respect for dignity of persons: regardless of culture, religion, gender, marital status, sexuality and extent to confidentiality + freedom to consent for consulting services - Principle 2: responsible caring: weighs cost + benefits of various methods to mini harm and max benefits - Principle 3: integrity in relationship: upheld thru self knowledge + critical analysis - Principle 4 responsibility to society: practice of freedom of inquiry + debate, caring for athlete is priority and must not violate by attempts to benefit society Chapter 2 Research Perspective in S + E psychology - Myths:  Research is defined by goals of activity or undertaking  Experimentation is only way to advance S + E psychology research  Qualitative research methods aren’t as rigorous as quantitative research methods Introduction: - International competition reinforced dominant role of science in high performance sport  Enhancement and utilization of better equipment/facilities - Argument of whether science and research has role in health promotion services Science and Scientific Research - Science is dynamic yet imperfect process of knowledge accumulation thru research - Basic research is testing fundamental mechanism that produce conditions w/o concern for practical utility - Applied research focuses on generating solution to immediate problems - Intuition is development of implicit understanding of phenomena of interest in absence of formal training - Tradition is knowledge that is historically rooted w/no emphases on current info - Authorities are expert whose opinions are considered final words in knowledge acquisition - Logic involves knowledge generated thru application of formal rules of reasoning to problem in question , derived inductively or deductively - Scientific method is series of steps executed to generate knowledge, but often disagreed upon the level of objectivity and total steps needed  Common ones are identification of research problem, formation of hypothesis, collection + analysis of data and integration of conclusion w/direction for additional study  Research wants to predict or explain phenomena - Descriptive research: in-depth portrayal of phenomenon of interest  Example: study to describe athletes use of imagery in sport - Predictive research: establish directional relationship  Changes in physical self perceptions and health related behaviors in adolescent girls over 3 year period - Research eventual goal is develop theory: interconnected set of concepts explaining how and why discrete phenomena work tgt Basic Research Terminology - Nomothetic is attempt to isolate rules + obs that pertain to most cases on most occasions - Idiographic is special/unique cases that doesn’t apply to most ppl on most occasion - Null hypothesis: no relationship btwn variables under study and no difference anticipated btwn groups receiving diff conditions of independent variables - Alternative/research hypothesis: educated guess regarding what they expect to find - Casual: implied relationship btwn independent/dependent variable  Proposed cause must be correlated w/observed effect  Proposed cause must precede effect or must be evidence of what methodologist refer to temporal precedence  All other possible extraneous variable must be systematically ruled out - Research ethics board: ensures research is conducted in manner that protects the integrity + safety of participants and researchers  Anonymity: inability to identify participant involved in research project  Confidentiality: retention of all participant date in confidence so ind data is not identifiable by others  Informed consent: participants fully informed of rights + responsibilities and how they will be treated in experiment - Beneficence: degree to which proposed research max potential benefits while min possible harm  Doesn’t guarantee participants face no risk given noninvasive research carriers risk of disclosure - Justice: selection of participants should be those who derive benefits from results of study Basic Measurement Concepts - Psychometrics: assessment of psychological variables using numbers - Reliability is consistency/stability of score derived from single/multiple test  Degree of precision  Classic approach is using true score model where every observed score has 2 components:  Ture score (actual ability) and error of measurement (introduced by act of measuring variable) - Validity is extent to which scores when interpreted serve intended function  Content validity: degree to which test items are relevant/fully represent focal variable of interest  Criterion validity: degree which test scores associated w/criterion of interest (ie test measuring aggressiveness who record aggressive actions for certain period of time in athletes)  Consequential validity: actual and potential consequence stemming from test score use - Sampling: process of selecting observation from population for purpose of research  Sample: selection of obs from large population  Population is either theoretical (all possible elements) or study (all accessible elements) Research Design - Internal validity: extent to which results can be attributed to treatment/intervention rather than design flaw - Internal validity threat: other plausible explanation for study findings  Maturation  History: influence of unusual, yet powerful external event  Selection: nonrandom placement of participants in group for intervention research study  Mortality: departure of participants in studies that use repeated assessments  Testing: influence of earlier test scores on later scores when test is administer on multiple occasions  Instrumentation: alterations in nature/reliability of test  Regression to mean: nature tendency of extreme scores to regress to typical population during subsequent testing  Diffusion of treatment: adoption of intervention type response by participant in control group when they learn of treatment provided to other group  Resentful demoralization: resentment by participants in control when learned treatment not applied to them - Randomized experimental designs: two hallmarks  Randomly assign participants to different conditions  Manipulation of independent variables - Quasi experimental: attempt to unearth cause of change in dependent variables w/o randomly assigning participants w/o randomizing  May be due to not possible, practical reasons or not desirable - Non experimental: establish patterns of relationship in absence of group assignment/variable manipulation  Place emphasis on testing arguments derived from theory or predicting criterion variable of interest rather than on establish causality  Sometimes known as passive obs or correlational design Qualitative research in S + E psychology - Quantitative inquiry is approach that focuses on quantifying/counting amount of particular variable - Qualitative inquiry encompass set of practices which research seek to understand world from perspective of those being studied  Attempt to understand insider’s view  Usually occur in naturalistic context, everyday experiences  Usually purposeful sample rather than randomized and involves in- depth study of small number of participants - Basic interpretation qualitative studies: seek to understand particular phenomenon, perspective, perceptions through interviews, obs, documentary, examination - Phenomenology: philosophical tradition that concerns structure or essence of lived experience (phenomenon) for ind/group of ppl  Temp put aside their preconceptions  May provide info to encourage teachers, coaches to be aware of emotional/social consequence stemming from physical awkwardness - Ground theory: approach where theory is developed inductively from participants data  Usually substantive rather than omnibus to explain broad phenomenon  Localized, dealings w/particular real world situation - Case studies: intensive descriptions + analyses of single unit in terms of ind/group/intervention/event/community  Incorporate variety of disciplinary/methodologies perspective - Ethnography: study of culture operating w/in group/team - Narrative analysis: collect data for purpose to present story told in first person distinguish it from scientific writing of other forms  Biography, autobiography, life narratives Chapter 3 Personality in S + E - Can personality predict sport performance? - Is the uniqueness of person need to be consistent over situations or can it be different in context like school, friends, sports? - Does personality interact w/motivation - Since 1970, debate over using personality to predict sport behavior + success but dropped in 1980s b/c perceived difficulties in measuring personality + disagreement about importance of personality in sport  Psychosocial factors however still remain important: t
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