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Midterm 2 Ch 4, 5, 10, 13, 14.docx

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York University
Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 3000
Joseph Baker

Chapter 4 Motivation and Behavioral Change Introduction - Reasons why you do things you do - Personal, cognitive, environmental factor coexist to influence motivation  Why did you start engaging? Who influenced your decisions, in which sport?  Why did you persist? Was it simple enjoyment or personal success driven  Why is your behavior directed toward certain PA rather than others? Goals impost priorities on behaviors Why did your sport behavior change? As we age may become competitive? What  fires us to train? Approaches to understanding motivation for behavior change? - Behavior approaches: understanding motivation focus on conditioning/learning from environment  Watson + Skinner believed learning determine action not only personality and free will  Basic features include operant conditioning, vicarious conditioning, operant strategies  Operant condition: associate behavior with consequence learned through coincidental reinforcement/punishment following specific behavior  Positive reinforcement increase behavior, negative reinforcement is removal of factor that increase behavior (criticism, aversive)  Punishment decrease behavior  Vicarious conditioning results from observation of others  We ma observe other and assume changes which we want as well Operant strategies like self-monitoring are effective for self-maintaining skills  - Cognitive approaches: emphasized role of though patterns + cognitive habits  Approach the individual as active participant to interpret their external environment which exerts powerful influence on individual  Basic automatic thought process, cognitive errors, core beliefs can be altered w/continued persistence  First identifying and recognizing then challenged to reflect reality through rational though, logic, empiricism - Cognitive behavioral: understand motivated behavior based on 2 central tenets:  Cognitions influence emotion and behavior  Behavior can affect thought patterns + emotions  Includes self-monitoring, goal setting, feedback, decision making Models of Motivation + Behavioral Change - ParticipACTION campaigns based on understanding factors shape behaviors - Primary application of motivational model is predict PA or describe thoughts + feelings of ppl who engaged in particular pattern, intervention to get ppl to be more active Transtheoretical Model - Emerged from framework to understand how ppl initiate and adopt regular PA  5 stages: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance Stage process is not necessarily linear and may enter at any stage or relapse to  previous stage  Intention-behavior continuum - Factors that influence stage progression:  Self-efficacy  Decision balance linking advantages + disadvantages  Disadvantages of PA outweigh benefits for those who are inactive  Process of change reflect strategies that individual use to progress through stages divided into 2 dimensions: experimental or cognitive (strategies to modify behavior) and behavioral process (social support behavioral engagement and rewards to maintain behavior) - Research:  Female, non-Caucasian ethnicity, lower education were associated w/lower stages of change  Age, marital status and current smoking status not associated w/satge of change  Greatest risk for relapse in preparation stage w/primary barriers like time, access to facilities, limited opportunities outside PE Applications include guidance for each level - Theory of Planned Behavior - Highlights personal + social factor as influence of behavior - Most proximal determinant of behavior is intention or readiness to perform behavior - Demonstrates temporal fluctuation w/weaker relationship btwn intention + behavior occurring w/distal measure vs proximal - Not often used in sport research but popular for exercise + leisure time PA behavior - 3 main factors: attitude:  +/- evaluation of engaging a behavior  Subjective norm: social pressure to perform behavior that stem from various personal/environment sources  Perceived behavior control: extent to which behavior is volitional + though to indirectly affect behavior through intention - Each of the 3 factors reflect in the understanding beliefs:  behavioral beliefs Being physically active will lead to certain consequences + evaluation of  consequence  Common beliefs is exercise enhance fitness + health, improve appearance Normative beliefs reflect perception of significant others and value they place on  PA and consequence  Common ones include social pressure Control belief are perceived barriers and facilitators  - Research: subjective norms are weaker association w/exercise intention but still meaningful. Utility demonstrated through gender + ethnicity   Has ability to predict PA in diverse clinical population including colorectal/breast cancer, spinal cord injuries, symptoms of peripheral artery disease Certain behavior + control beliefs were associated w/exercise behavior 6 months  after engagement - Application: Intervention strategies should focus on enhancing individual’s intention to exercise   Attitude toward PA may be increased by increasing knowledge to benefits of exercise and its importance Education at gov’t, media, public service announcement, news stores,  research, tips in fitness facilities  Target subject norms: identify exercise environment or eliciting support of others Target perceived behavioral control through coping skills like doing short bouts of  exercise instead of long duration for ppl w/time issue Social Cognitive Theory - Belief that individual are proactively engaged in development w/motivation as product of dynamic interplay of personal, behavioral, environmental influences Main constructs are observational learning, goals, outcome expectation, outcome  expectancies. Self-regulation, behavioral outcomes, self-efficacy - 4 main personal + environmental ways to change individual self-efficacy: Mastery experience: past performance success + failure for similar behaviors   Vicarious experience: modelled behaviors associated w/development of + change in self efficacy including imagery use + target similarity as key features Social persuasion: verbal + nonverbal feedback from significant, knowledgeable  others Physiological + affective states: physical + emotional cues associated  w/performance + behavior - Research: rarely includes all SCT dimensions, but those that have multiple construct shows support role of outcome expectancies + self-efficacy in S+E setting  Research show self-efficacy, outcome expectation, impediments, social support predicted over 50% of individual difference in PA across 6 month Self-efficacy linked to behavioral outcomes like sport performance, exercise  adherence, EE and PA participation  3 type of self-efficacy: task, coping, scheduling SCT can be used as guiding framework to improve emotional states and correct faulty - self-beliefs, improve skills - In health sector used to encourage + assist Canadians to be physically active by increasing awareness, influence positive social, physical environment, establish partnership to support collaborative actions Self Determination Theory - Human motivation + development has evolved from work of Deci + Ryan - Main focus of framework is behavior like S + E are undertaken volitionally as opposed to being controlled by external agents or contingency - Ppl are naturally endowed w//innate tendencies for personal growth + development which flourish when social environment provide optimal conditions 4 mini theories: -  Cognitive evaluation: how various shape development of intrinsic motivation  Organismic integration: extent behavior is motivated for different extrinsic reason that represent varying degree of internalization  Causality orientation: personality level construct to describe individual difference which ppl are self-determined as opposed to controlled Basic needs: nature + function of psychological needs for competence, autonomy,  relatedness to motivation + well being - OIT + BNT deal w/special nature of motivation where at one end there is motivation and the other is intrinsic regulation (engage in PA b/c of enjoyable, interesting) - 4 types of extrinsic motivation (ranges in middle, first 2 are no self-determined and last 2 are self-determined) External regulation: least self-determined, exercising sport to fulfill external  contingency/demand  Interjected regulation: engage in exercise to avoid negative emotions and maintain fragile sense of self worth  Identified regulation: PA linked to personally important + valued goal Integrated regulation: PA are symbolic of person’s identify   Extrinsic motives moves based on degree of self-determination, type of motivation is function of degree which athletes fulfill basic psychological needs Humans has 3 needs that when authentically fulfilled facilitate internalization  of behavioral regulation  Competence is feeling effective + capable when taking on challenge Autonomy: feeling of ownership that action seem from sense of  perceived choice + internal control  Relatedness: meaningful connections w/others in environments Research: greater endorsement of self-determined motives associated w/increased effort - in PE class and intention to be active, exercise intensity  More self-determined motivation evidence in players w/greater sense of competence, autonomy, relatedness - Practice: supportive interactional style  Autonomy support: provision of choices + options and reduction of pressure Structure: provision of appropriate feedback + clarification of expectations   Involvement: extent to which individual feels others are genuinely invested in health + well being Achievement Goal Theory - Two disposition oriented dimensions on how ppl define success + failure Task goal orientation: reference to one’s own past performance or knowledge as origin of - competence feelings, providing opportunities for personal growth + mastery - Ego goal orientation: comparisons w/others and associated w/belief that sport provides opportunities for gaining social status + wealth and success emanates from outperforming others - Depends on disposition goal and development/situation factors: Young children are unable to equate effort and ability but grows with age   Perceived motivational climate can change person’s psychological achievement promoted by coach which may emphasize achievement goals over personal Research: goal profiling is relative tendencies of task + ego involvement and classified - from 1-4 high-low combination  Moderate to high task orientation w/similar level of ego orientation can be beneficial  High ego orientation is not detrimental when combined w/moderate to high task  Avoidance goal involve actively moving away from situation whereas approach is involving and being active  Trichotomous model of achievement involves 3 conditions: performance approach, performance avoidance, mastery Theory of Competence Motivation - Developed by Harter based on White’s work of effectance motivation - Individual are innately motivated to be competent in all areas of human achievement  Perception of one’s competence + control in activity that’s perceived as valuable/important will produce motivation in continuing that activity - Key aspect is self-concept being multidimensional, where helping ppl in different domains and as ppl mature the number of domains increases Perceptions of competence in these domains contribute to feelings of self-worth to  continue pursuing activities in those domain - Another feature is perception of competence will enhance self-worth + motivation if individual values competence in that domain - Basic components: young athlete’s perception of athletic competence and control lead to emotional states and combine to facilitate motivation and their success will lead to mastery attempts and send feedback effecting mood state and thein altering perceived control/value - High competence will exert greater effort and persist longer in face of failure and experience more positive affect than individual who hold lower levels of perceived competence - Research: positive feedback increase perceived physical competence Enjoyment not only related to physical competence but also personal control  environment, team friendship - Application: positive feedback will enhance engagement in PA while children are young, as they get older they start to develop ability to form own internal standard and then perception of control+ value drives competence motivation  Allowing them to have choice in what they participate will increase PA Sport Commitment Model - Psychological state representing desire to continue sport participation Explained 5 factors: -  Sport enjoyment: positive emotions and strongest predictor of commitment  Involvement alternatives: other activities and how attractive they are compared to S+E  Personal investment: resource person has put activity  Social constraint: pressure and expectation from norms/obligations Involvement opportunities: things athlete able to do if they continue participation  - Research:  Higher commitment associated w/ED in females  In gender difference in triathletes there were none but found personal investment, involvement alternatives, involvement opportunities were significant predictor of sport commitment - Application: explains why some athletes persist even if they don’t enjoy activity or maladaptive behaviors Social Approaches to motivation - Other than individual cognitive factors, support socially is important  Coaches who are more autonomy supportive, less controlling, mastery/task motivational climate, provide positive reinforcement promote more adaptive motivation of their team  Peer relationship help predict PA in youth  Males more strongly encourage and males tend to have more active friends then females Summary - Motivation is not trait (person centered approach) but rather many things can affect motivation - Competence is not main, rather attitudes, social influences, perceptions are important constructs Chapter 5 Anxiety in S + E Definitions and basic concept of anxiety Anxiety is not arousal - Arousal is blend of physiological + psychological activation of individual ANS  Can be from deep sleep to peak activation or frenzy - Not pleasant or unpleasant experience, increase in arousal can occur from positive + exciting events or negative and threatening events - Anxiety is simply more complex than arousal Anxiety is an emotion and multidimensional in nature - Anxiety is mostly understood as negative and proposed to have  Elicit following an appraisal Universally observed across ppl of all culture   Distinct physiology  Observed through discrete facial expression Unique set of behavior called action tendencies  - May be experienced by PA in different ways with mental and physical component  Mental = cognitive anxiety and reflects athlete’s concern and reduced ability to focus/concentrate  Physical = somatic, distinct from arousal in that it is not merely reflection of level pf physiological arousal experienced but perception of symptom manifestations of arousal  Physiological + affective elements of anxiety develop directly from autonomic arousal  Only experienced to degree athlete becomes aware of arousal symptom like clammy hands  Conceptualized to be independent and distinct but they also interrelated Anxiety is context Specific - Social anxiety is specific anxiety occurring in social situations  Occurs when they think or experience evaluations from others Competitive anxiety is form of social anxiety where athletes concerted about body,  performance, fitness level, skill evaluated by spectators, teammates, coaches, family, friends Social physique anxiety is in exercise context, anxiety experienced in perceiving  others may evaluate one’s physique in social setting Anxiety has both trait and state component - Anxiety is personality and response that fluctuates from situation State anxiety is associated w/worries and apprehension that change from moment to - moment - Trait anxiety is more stable part of individual personality, predisposing individual to perceive situation as physical/psychologically threatening Dimensions of Anxiety Response Intensity of symptoms: Amount or level experienced by PA and participates - - Frequency of cognitive intrusions: amount of time (%) that thoughts and feelings about competition occupy individual mind, important for understanding temporal nature of anxiety - Directional interpretation of symptoms: extent to which intensity of cognitive + somatic anxiety are labelled either facilitative or debilitative Sources of Anxiety Personal sources of anxiety Five most studied areas: age, experience, skill level; gender; trait anxiety; self-confidence - + self-presentational beliefs; self-regulation Age, experience and skill level - Athletes of different skills didn’t differ in intensity of anxiety symptoms prior to performance But skilled athletes view anxiety symptoms to be facilitative  - Completive experience may be more sensitive indicator related to difference in athletes experience of anxiety  Higher experienced athletes may have more competitive experience but not necessary experience at competitive level due to sudden rise in performance But in this context those with more experience report lower intensity of  precompetitive anxiety + evaluate anxiety to be facilitative compared to less experienced performances Gender - Research is inconsistent BMI strongest predictor for social physical anxiety for women - - Exercise behavior strongest for men - Peer pressure and relative attractiveness of peers were predictor for both Social physique is greater concern for women but experienced by both gender - Trait Anxiety Individual level of trait anxiety directly affects perception of threat in competitive + - exercise situations  state anxiety intensity level - This effect appears to be restricted to intensity of anxiety symptoms and isn’t extend to interpretations of symptoms as facilitative or debilitative  Low trait anxious and high trait anxious athletes interpret state anxiety in similar manner for affecting performance Self Confidence + Self Presentational Beliefs - Personal belief in capability to achieve success is critical source of anxiety for S+E Positive beliefs, readiness for competition, ability to exert control, ability to perform better - than one’s opponent are related to lower levels of state anxiety - Positive belief about ability of group to work together is linked to less pre-completive anxiety - Self-confidence is linked to more facilitative beliefs  Also helps highly worried (cognitively anxious) athletes to tolerate elevations in physiological arousal - Self-presentation: process by which ppl attempt to monitor and control impression others hold of them Poor self-presentation = elevation in competitive trait and state anxiety intensity   Discrepancy between current and ideal shape was positively associated with social physique anxiety Ppl who exercise more to control weight has high social physique anxiety  - Self-presentational self-efficacy: confidence in one’s ability to present images of exercise Women who believed they were exercising w/loose clothing, no mirrors, no men  present had lower social anxiety + physique anxiety Self-Regulation - Ability to use coping skills to manage anxiety response: relaxation skill, self-talk, cognitive restricting, imagery is most important factor in distinguishing medal winners from non- medal winners - PA is most used to reduce social physique anxiety, 12% - Self-handicapping: action or choice of performance setting that enhance opportunity to externalize failure and internalize success  Likely to diminish efforts during competition, exaggerate pain, select unattainable goals, complain of illegitimate referee Also report to have higher intensity level of trait and state anxiety   But is viewed usually to be facilitative - General conclude that elevations in intensity due to: Novice expertise   Being female  High trait anxiety Lowe self-confidence/self-efficacy   Negative or poor self-presentational beliefs  Poor self-regulatory skills Use of handicapping strategies  Environment based sources of anxiety Temporal Patterning in Sport Environment - Somatic anxiety remains at low intensity till several hours before competition which follows sharp rise till onset During and after competition the intensity of somatic anxiety decrease - - Cognitive anxiety demonstrates different pattern  Unless there is change in athlete’s evaluation fo potential success before competition, no changes in intensity of cognitive anxiety but during onset there is decline - Personal variables that interact w/temporal phase: sex, gender, skill level, sport, level of competition, competitiveness, success, failure, perceived ability - While intensity of cognitive anxiety remained stable, the frequency increased as competition nears Direction wise it becomes less facilitate as competition draws near - Mirror in exercise environment - Presence of mirror increase level of state anxiety and social anxiety - Only affects if task are simple and exercise is inexperienced Clothing in exercise environment - More revealing clothing is associated with higher level of social anxiety Those with lower social physical anxiety prefer more revealing clothing - - Participants who were active in general didn’t show difference btwn clothing presence Characteristics of other exercisers - Exercising in presence of others increase anxiety for women - Participants who were interactive, positive, enthusiastic were associated with greater social anxiety level then when there was no interaction  In belief that others were evaluation them - Mixed gender rather than all female setting lead to increase in social physique anxiety for women only  Perception that men will evaluate women’s body during exercise Exercise leader characteristics - Enriched leadership helped participants experience less social anxiety  Participants feel less intimidated and worried to be judged negatively Appearance of leader: those who wore more revealing clothing had no effect on anxiety - but those who though they were les attractive than instructor experienced greater social physique anxiety Anxiety Influences on Exercise Behavior and Sport Performance Influence of anxiety on exercise behavior Research between social anxiety and exercise through self-presentation framework -  At very high levels, social anxiety may prevent ppl from exercising together  Individuals high in social physique anxiety exercise to improve bodies and receive positive evaluations but may also avoid exercise to avoid evaluation  When is which?  Social physique anxiety led to lower levels of PA only in women with low level of self presentation efficacy  Men who over-lifted seen as brave and attractive but social physique anxiety wasn’t related to symptoms of exercise dependence when considering BMI, gender, exercise behavior Anxiety Sport Performance Relationship Models Multidimensional anxiety theory - Relationship btwn components of anxiety and sport performance - First set of predictions = relationship btwn cognitive and somatic components of anxiety and sport performance - Second set = relationship btwn component of competitive anxiety and sport performance may change across different temporal phase of competition  Somatic anxiety is inverted curvilinear, as somatic increase sport performance should enhance to certain point Beyond moderate intensity will then become debilitative   Based on findings that moderate muscular tension were associated with best optimal sport performance Good to establish 3 dimensional relationship btwn cognitive anxiety, somatic anxiety and - sport performance but findings have been inconsistent Zones of optimal functioning theory - Best performance more likely to occur with optimal levels of state anxiety - Optimal state anxiety is bandwidth of state anxiety intensity score rather than specific value + not dependent on motor skill requirement of sport or athlete’s skill - Some ppl can play best even if there is large fluctuation in intensity of anxiety symptoms if they have wide zone of competitive state anxiety while others play best if anxiety stays constant with narrow zone - Some play best with high level others with just low to moderate - Zones of optimal functioning = athlete within their identified competitive state anxiety zone will most likely have best performance - Theory shows relationship btwn anxiety + performance differences btwn athletes and anxiety is not always detrimental to sport performance Cusp Catastrophe Theory - Combined or interactive influence of multiple components of competitive anxiety and physiological arousal on athletic performance - Physiological arousal rather than somatic anxiety is included as it is argued it has both direct and indirect effect on sport performance Recognize anxiety has complete relationship with performance and helps predict certain - circumstance where intensity is not detrimental - 5 predictions When cognitive state anxiety is low, relationship btwn physiological arousal and  performance is uniform or inverted U  When physiological arousal is low, elevations in cognitive state anxiety are associated with enhanced performance relative to baseline  When physiological arousal is high, elevations in cognitive state anxiety = decline in performance  When cognitive state anxiety is high, effect of elevation in physiological arousal is +/= for performance and the combined effect of high cognitive and low physiological show produce more successful performance Physiological arousal is high and cognitive state is high there is dramatic  performance drop called catastrophe  Doesn’t occur when cognitive state is low Underlying Mechanism of Anxiety Performance Relationship - Why does anxiety affect performance? It is necessary first understand sport skill execution - Optimal performance requires  Cognitive processing of relevant amount and types of info from environment  Appropriate level + coordinate of muscle activation - Competitive anxiety + arousal process affect sport performance through interfering with cognitive info process or neuromuscular control Cognitive Mechanism - Amount + type of info (task relevant or irrelevant) and type of cognitive processing (conscious vs autonomic) affects competition anxiety - Attentional focus and selectivity hypothesis: elevation in competitive state anxiety reduce ability o attend and process large amount of info  Performance is improve by increase in completive anxiety if unimportant distracting cues are blocked but not task relevant ones - Another problem is type of info processed: task irrelevant info usually processed by highly anxious athletes  Attend to subjective importance of cue rather than location of cues in visual field - 3 problem is presence of competitive anxiety in shift to conscious controlled processing system  Choking: significance decrease in sport performance when under pressure  When performers self-conscious awareness becomes disruptive  Heightened conscious control of previously automatic skilled behavior disrupts coordinated fluidity associ
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