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Final

Physiology II study notes for final exam Includes all concepts from all chapters.

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Department
Kinesiology & Health Science
Course
KINE 3012
Professor
Tara Haas
Semester
Winter

Description
Physiology II Final Exam Review HomeostasisFrom one cell to many embryo to adult there is differentiation which means specialization complexity in all tissues organs and cellsSpecialization requires communication to maintain whole body function your body coordinates these functions byo the brain sends commands hormones blood neurotransmitters nerves o the brain receives info feedback o through regulation of inout and is adaptable to changesHomeostasis is maintaining a relatively constant internal environment temperature blood glucose blood pressureSensitivity of the detector receptor determines the range of oscillation some effectors have very specific effects others more general local homeostatic mechanisms do not involve the integrating centre antagonistic effectors improve responsivenessA Set Point is the desired physiological value the hierarchy of importance determines which variables have priorityThe steady state is the normal range of values abovebelow the set point and requires energy to maintainAn error signal is any deviation from the set pointRelative Constancy means that the set point is actually a range of acceptable values dynamic The set point is adaptive and can be reset For homeostasis to work your body needs sensors and receptors effectors and nerve hormonesThe classic homeostatic regulation mechanisms are negative feedback vs Positive feedback vs Feed forward Negative Feedback is the coordination of responses a signal is detected and a response counteracts the initial stimulus it returns the body to its original state Negative feedback is the most common homeostatic regulation mechanism Homeostatic Reflex Loop1 What is the variable being maintained relatively constant 2 Where are the receptors detecting the changes in the variable 3 Where is the integrating center that collects info and sends out instructions through efferent pathways 4 What are the effectors and how do they impact the variable Antagonistic Effectors are 2 systems that are in opposition from each otherTemperaturesweating vasodilatation vs Shivering vasoconstrictionHeart rateparasympathetic nerves vs Sympathetic nervesBlood Glucoseinsulin vs Glucagon Positive Feedback not an attempt to restore homeostasis it strengthens the stimulus Transcription factors regulate production of certain genes and are also an example of positive feedback Responses add to the initial stimulus and strengthen it do not return the body to its original state and are not commonly used in your body Feed Forward is anticipatory occurs in anticipation of an event and prepares the body for imminent challenges For example the food in your stomach induces insulin release before you eat or the body of a runner at the starting line in a race is preparing for the upcoming exercise through thoughtLevels of Regulation intracellular intercellular and tissue are Intrinsic controls systems and organisms are Extrinsic controlsIntrinsic controls are local control mechanisms inherent to an organ Extrinsic controls initiated outside an organ accomplished by nerves and the endocrine system Respiratory System Chapter 13 pgs 471516 Functions of the respiratory systemBrings oxygen Removes CO2 Regulates Ph hydrogen ion concentrationDefence against infectionSound Production Lung Structure Conducting zone determines airflowConsists of Trachea bronchi bronchioles and terminal bronchiolesConducting zone is a low resistance pathwayWalls are reinforced with a ring of cartilageWarms humidifies and filters airNo gas exchange Respiratory zone consists of respiratory bronchioles alveolar ducts and alveolar sacsEnables gas exchange300 million alveoli totalTotal surface area is 700 square feet Cellular composition of lungsAll airways are lined with cuboidal epithelial cells ciliated in the conducting zone mucous secreting epithelial cells in the conducting zoneBronchioles wrapped with smooth muscle cells bronchiodialation good and bronchioconstriction bad
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