Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
____ 1. Which statement is correct for the systemic circulation?
a. It receives more blood than the pulmonary circulation does.
b. It receives blood from the left ventricle.
c. It is a high-pressure system compared to the pulmonary circulation.
d. It receives blood from the left ventricle and is a high-pressure system compared to the
____ 2. What is the function of the ventricular conduction system of the heart?
a. to spread the action potential throughout the large ventricular mass to ensure a single,
coordinated contraction of the ventricles
b. to spread the action potential in the absence of sympathetic stimulation
c. to set the heart rate
d. to spread the action potential throughout the atria and ventricles
____ 3. What is cardiac output?
a. the volume of blood pumped by each ventricle during each contraction or beat
b. the volume of blood pumped by each ventricle per minute
c. stroke volume ?6? SVR (systemic vascular resistance)
d. the volume of blood pumped by each atria into ventricles
____ 4. What does the Frank–Starling law of the heart state?
a. The shorter the initial length of the cardiac muscle fibres prior to contraction, the more
forceful will be the subsequent contraction because the fibres are already partially
b. Increasing the venous return increases the end-diastolic volume, which leads to an
increased stroke volume, so the heart normally pumps out all of the blood returned to it.
c. As cardiac output is reduced, blood pools in the vasculature so that arterial blood pressure
d. The output of the left side of theheart must always exceed that of the right side of the
heart because the right side pumps blood only to the lungs, whereas the left side must
pump blood to the rest of the body.
____ 5. The second heart sound occurs when the semilunar valves close. What does this mark?
a. the start of the ejection period
b. the start of systole
c. the end of the ejection period
d. the start of isovolumetric contraction
____ 6. Which of the following are compensatory mechanisms that come into play in order to maintain the cardiac
output for the failing heart?
a. decreased myocardial contractility
b. increased vagal stimulation
c. increased sympathetic stimulation
d. peripheral vasodilation
____ 7. Which structures join adjacent cardiac muscle cells end-to-end in the ventricles?
a. intercalated discs b. sarcomeres
c. Purkinje fibres
d. sinoatrial nodes
____ 8. The plateau of the cardiac action potential results from