Mosher Readings 1.docx

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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 3020
Merv Mosher

Topic 1 1. Skill: the ability achieve some end result with maximum certainty and minimum time/use of energy 2. Four important features of a skill: - Achieve some desired environmental goal by moving (you can‟t achieve an environmental goal without moving) - Meet a performance goal with maximum certainty – hits the basket every time - Minimize/conserve energy required for performance - Achieve a goal in a minimum amount of time 3. The minimum-energy notion applies to organizing an action so that physiological and psychological (mental) energy costs are lower 4. The major contributor to the efficiency of a skilled performance is practice 5. Usually when you speed up a performance it becomes sloppy and there is less certainty that the environmental goal will be achieved 6. Three elements critical to almost any skill: - Perceiving the relevant environment features - Deciding what to do and where/when to do it - Producing organized muscular activity to generate movements 7. Three components involved in the production of many skills: - Postural components provide a "platform" to support the actions - Body transport components bring the body or limb to the action - Manipulation components produce the action 8. When performing a movement, the postural components support the action 9. Body transport (or locomotor) components of movement bring the body or limb to the action – move the body to the place where the skill will take place 10. Manipulation components are utilized when moving the fingers and wrists in a complex video game 11. It difficult to study the several components of skill efficiently because they are studied by widely different groups of scientists, generally with little overlap and communication among them 12. Cognitive psychologists are primarily interested in sensory or perceptual processes 13. Cognitive psychologists are interested in the complex information-processing activities involved in seeing, hearing, and feeling. This differs from psychophysicists, who examine the relationship between objective physical stimuli (e.g., vibration intensity) and the subjective sensations these stimuli create when perceived (loudness). 14. An open skill is one where the environment changes and is unpredictable during the action. A closed skill is one where the environment is stable and predictable (polar ends of a continuum) 15. Wrestling is an example of an open skill because it is difficult to predict the future moves of an opponent and thus future responses to the opponent 16. A game of chess is a semi-predictable environment because you can‟t predict exactly what your opponent will do but your opponent‟s options are limited. Thus one knows, to an extent, what move the opponent will make and allows one to decide what to do in response (middle of continuum) 17. A discrete skill has an easily defined beginning and end, often with a very brief duration of movement: kicking a ball. A continuous skill has no particular beginning or end, with the movement flowing on for many minutes: swimming (polar ends of a continuum) 18. In tracking, the performer‟s limb movements are controlling a lever, a wheel, a handle or some other device to follow the movements of some target track. This is an example of a continuous skill (i.e. driving) 19. A serial skill is a group of discrete skills strung together to make up a new, more complicated skilled action: gymnastics routine (middle of continuum) 20. The word „serial‟ in serial skill implies that the order of the elements is usually critical for successful performance 21. Serial skills differ from discrete skills in that the movement durations are longer, yet each movement retains a discrete beginning and end 22. With a motor skill, the primary determinant of success is the quality of the movement itself (decision making is pretty much absent – ex: high jump). With a cognitive skill, the nature of the movement is not particularly important but the decisions about which movement to make are critical (ex: chess game) 23. A cognitive skill mainly involves selecting what to do, whereas a motor skill mainly involves how to do it (polar ends of a continuum) 24. A quarterback does not make decisions with maximal motor control because there is a degree of decision making that is also part of the QB‟s role on the team Topic 2 1. Reaction time: the time interval between the presentation of a signal and the initiation of movement (ex: used to determine how quickly a sprinter responds to the starter's signal and begins to leave the blocks) 2. A simple reaction time (SRT) situation occurs when movements are in response to a single stimulus 3. A choice reaction time (CRT) is when there are many possibilities for action because there are multiple stimuli. - Football example: depending on how the movement situation unfolds following a snap, a quarter back may choose to throw to anyone of a number of possible receivers or to run with the ball. 4. A discrimination reaction time (DRT) also involves the presentation of multiple signals. Performers in a DRT setting are required to respond to only one of several signals presented. - Football example: the coach has instructed the QB to throw to a particular receiver even though several others are available 5. Fractionated reaction time (FRT) makes it possible to separate cognitive from mechanical processes using surface electromyography (EMG). EMG is used to divide RT into two parts: - Premotor time (PRMOT) – the time that passes between the presentation of a st signal and the 1 change in EMG activity o The time required to receive and interpret the sensory signal presented, develop an action plan, and convey it to the appropriate muscle (cognitive) - Motor time (MOT) – begins with the 1 change in electrical activity recorded in the prime-moving muscle and continues until the movement begins (mechanical) o Different from PRMOT – not directly measureable – calculated by subtracting PRMOT from overall RT 6. Four variables that influence the time required to complete the mental processes believed to precede the actual movement: - Number of response choices available to the performer - Complexity of the response to be performed - Accuracy demands associated with the movement - Amount of practice provided on a specific task 7. Movement time (MT): the time interval between the start of a movement and its completion 8. The speed-accuracy trade-off phenomenon is most likely to occur in movement situations where the performer is required to move quickly and accurately (ex: kayak race through various gates) 9. A goalie making a glove save on a 100mph slap shot is not only a by-product of “good” reaction time because there is a degree of advanced planning that goes into that type of save (in anticipation of the shot) 10. In movement segments exceeding 500 milliseconds movements are not all planned before they take place – subjects plan only a portion of the movement in advance and then continue to plan later segments as the movement progresses 11. A pitcher‟s earned run average (ERA) can help a baseball coach/manager by providing valuable information on what to focus on during future practices 12. Absolute error (AE) score: amount of error associated with a particular performance 13. AE is not the best measure to rely on because it does not give any information on the direction of the error (ex: over or undershoot a target) 14. Variable error (VE) score: degree of consistency/variability associated with a given performance 15. VE is obtained by calculating the standard deviation (lower SD = more consistency). 16. Constant error (CE): measure of response bias – considers the amount and direction of error 17. A coach/trainer can use CE to correct an archer‟s technique because the direction of error is indicated 18. Absolute constant error (׀CE׀) is different from CE because it provides an accurate performance bias when applied to a group of performers, instead of just the performance of individuals – the overall bias of the group is determined by comparing the number of positive and negative values associated with each individuals score 19. Total error (E): total variability surrounding a particular performance – the best way to capture both response bias and variability in a single measure 20. Four measurement techniques used to describe the coordination and/or control of movement: - Kinematic/form related measures – motion qualities without regard to force (displacement, acceleration, etc.) - Electromyography - Kinetic/force production indices - Angle-angle diagrams and phase plane portraits 21. Electromyography (EMG) is to measure the level of electrical activity that occurs in the agonist and antagonist muscle groups during a particular movement 22. EEGs are used to measure the brains own electrical activity 23. Four waves of the brain (fastest to slowest): - Beta waves – when an area of the cortex is active - Alpha waves – during quiet, awake states - Theta waves – during some sleep states - Delta waves – during deep sleep 24. Positron emission topography (PET) is a type of neuroimaging technique that provides clear and precise images of activity in specific brain regions. PET is useful because, unlike EEG, it is not limited to activity in the brain cortex surface but also shows the anatomical structures that are a
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