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Labs 1-10 Summarized

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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 3020
Merv Mosher

Lab 1  Two parts to this lab- Part 1 will be measuring and analyzing two fundamental components of motor learning literature (RT and MT), and Part 2 will present an overview of components of the brain and how it works  Measurement is the process of collecting data on the property or attribute of interest  Median was a better central tendency  Correlation coefficient showed little to no relationship. Small positive relationship 1. One of the components is the Central Nervous System (CNS) it is made of brain and spinal cord. It issues commands based on past experience and current information. o The other component is the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) it is the nervous system outside of CNS. It has nerves that carries impulses to and from the spinal cord and brain. The PNS consist of Autonomic and Somatic Nervous Systems. The Autonomic system is also called the Involuntary Nervous System because it manages things that we cannot control like digestion, respiration, contraction of iris in the eye, regulation of heart rate, blood pressure, and metabolism. The Somatic system is also referred to as the Voluntary Nervous System. It allows us to consciously control body movements. 2. The three types of neurons are sensory, motor, and association neurons. They relay impulses form receptors from outlying parts of the body. Then return signals from CNS to the muscles and glands. Sensory neurons are activated by a stimuli like sensing heat. An impulse from the sensory neuron goes through association neurons in the spinal cord by links called synapse. A response is carried out by motor neurons to an effector organ like a muscle that then performs a movement 3. The Brainstem connects rest of brain to the spinal cord. It controls many of the automatic functions of the body like breathing and heart rate. It has three main parts: Pons, Midbrain, and Medulla Oblongata. The Pons influences breathing. The Midbrain controls eye movement, facial expression, and chewing. The Medulla Oblongata helps the Pons regulate breathing, and also regulates heartbeat, blood pressure, swallowing, and vomit reflex. o The Cerebellum is the second largest portion of the brain. Controls precise coordination of movement, posture, and balance. Helps to coordinate exact skeletal movement. Regulates coordination and balance by gauging sensory messages from the body and comparing with what the body is doing and what the brain intended to do. Then justifications and adjustments are made so fluid motion and balance are enabled. Reading signs from inner ear and gauging equilibrium then transmits impulses to muscles which then contract to maintain balance. Believed to play a role in smoothness of thinking and mood. o The Cerebrum controls, speech, smell, eat, and memory. It is the largest part of the brain, two hemispheres which control opposite parts of the body. It has a Sensory area which receives stimuli from different parts of the body. A Visual area receives impulse from the eyes and interprets shapes and sizes. Auditory area analyzes sound, pitch and rhythm. Gustatory and olfactory area interprets taste and smell. All the information gathered is integrated in the Gnostic area. In the Cerebrum is a Primary motor area controls voluntary muscle movement. The Motor area generates impulses that cause muscles to contract in specific sequences like typing on a keyboard. Association areas connect sensory and motor areas. It is involved with memory, emotions, personality and intelligence o Diencephalon has been associated with intense feelings. Consist of Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Metathalamus, and Epithalamus. Epithalamus manufactures cerebral spinal fluid which acts as a cushion for the CNS. Thalamus acts as a relay station for impulses from spinal cord into the brain, this gives the first impulse if it is pain or pleasure. Metathalamus contains the lateral and medial geniculate bodies which coordinates parts of balance and eye movement. The Hypothalamus control centre for rage and aggression. It also maintains physical conditions like body temperature, metabolism, water balance, and sleep. Lab 2- altered information transmission and performance  A paired t-test was performed  Least to most distortion: no goggles, silver, gold, blue Laboratory 3  Two principal ways that the Nervous system gains information to control Voluntary movement is through Vision and Kinesthesis  Integrating both types of sensory information into an ongoing motor act is associated with a processing delay  The time required to integrate Sensory information into a motor response can reflect either a delay in initiating a response or in inhibiting one  ANOVA was the statistical technique used in this lab  E- root mean square error o E= sqrt [CE^2+VE^2] o CE –mean of scores, VE- Standard deviation  100ms group had more errors because less time to pull back on stimulus  The purpose of ANOVA is to compare two or more means on one dependent variable  Students can comprehend the math in statistics up until ANOVA this might be due to the lengthy number of steps involved in calculating ANOVA- students are concerned with the accuracy of their math  Sometimes the term Within- group variance is used to describe Error varience  MS= SS/ df o Mean Square, Sum of Squares, Degrees of freedom  F ratio is the answer calculated in ANOVA- represents the ration between variance due to the treatment or experimental variable and the variance due t error o F ratio= Treatment Variance/ Error variance o Treatment MS/ Error MS o The larger the F ration the greater proportion of total variance is due to the treatment and therefore the greater the probability that F will be significant  Post Hoc test-used to identify the difference when F is significant  Several terms are used to describe this test: Follow up, Multiple comparison, Post hoc, and Posteriori  Several post hoc test are available they range from liberal to conservative or stringent o Liberal would more likely show a significance, where conservative would less likely o These are the tests Duncan multiple range, Newman- Keuls, Fischer’s least significant difference, Tukey’s honesty significant difference (HSD), and Scheffe o Using which post hoc test, depends on the researcher  Ex. With testing medicine you would want to use Scheffe to minimize Type 1 error ( falsely rejecting the null hypothesis)  Repeated Measures- means that the same subjects are tested several times for a measure of an independent variable o Using the same subjects reduces the problem of obtaining adequate number of subjects o Reduces component of Error variance due to differences among individual subjects, thereby increasing the likelihood of detecting significant differences o Subjects in repeated measures should be exposed to each independent variable on a random basis to prevent an order effect o Order effect is a change in behavior due to the sequence of activities in a study Laboratory 4- Mirror tracing and Interference task  Declarative memory or knowledge of facts and information- studied extensively  Procedural memory- memory for the performance of a particular skill action and its formation is less understood o Procedural memory is the basis of all skilled performance and motor learning  For Declarative memory incoming memory enters STM and stored in a fragile state, maintained by rehearsal and transferred to LTM or forgotten o Presentation of new information in this fragile state will interfere with consolidation  The lab showed that there is a significant difference between mirrored and trial 1  Learning does occur as shown from trial 1 to 5  An unpaired t-test was performed and showed that the int
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