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Kine 3020 Exam Summary - Merv

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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 3020
Merv Mosher

Decision Mechanism: the information processing between perception and making the movement (Reaction time NOT Movement time) Hick-Hyman Law: predicts CRT, where n is the CRT = a +b Log2(N) bits, as the number of SR number of S-R choices choices goes up, the CRT increases, SKILLED: the effect of practice will lower CRT (b is slope) Choice Reaction Time (CRT): controlled by the number of stimulus response choices (1 CRT vs 3 CRT) Example: Football must choose between run and pass (2 CRT) for unskilled RT it will be 150 msc greater than a simple 1 CRT Higher compatibility = effect of practice and decreases slope of HH function by bypassing the Stimulus Response Compatibility (SR): degree limited capacity mechanism with LTM to save of practice on a particular configuration time, third stage of learning To become skilled: practice unfamiliar SR Example: Stroop Test: looking at difference combos (low compatibility) so RT goes up (high colour names written in different ink colour compatibility) Psychological Refractory Period: faking a signal, delay of 100 msecs to normal RT, if second signal is within 50-200msec after first = Situations: success S2 less than 50 msec = treated the same S2 > 50 < 200 = 1 RT = 100ms = FAKING S2 < 200 = too slow treated as 1RT, even slower, will have BETTER RT (lab data) Why?: Bottleneck, we have a limited capacity, the first stimulus must be processed before second one can occur Practical Implication: SKILLED performer learns through trial and error the timing to catch the 50-200 msec time frame for PRP, PRP is magnified by momentum where MT is involved (hockey player mass, can’t change direction) Anticipation: learned cues to predict future Benefit: Situations where response time is events (skate to where puck will be) minimal like cricket ball bouncing 90mph at 30ft Examples: A) skilled goalies looking at stick and - 230 msec (problem can’t process info) not the puck B) skilled goalies better at guessing Solution: anticipation is needed because MT in boxing is faster than RT where puck would when looking at the images of stick (more time before shot, better guess) C) baseball players better at ball trajectory estimate by looking at pitchers legs and feet (cues) Evidence: Crossman’s Confusion Function: A SKILLED PLAYERS: use perceptual cues to law that applies to a comparison of two DRT = a + b ((1/Log2(X1) - Log2(X2))bits) anticipate AND strategies for preventing stimuli X1 and X2 are the stimuli, Y is the opponent from anticipating Examples: Skilled table tennis players changed difference in height X1 = bigger stimulus, X2 = smaller stimulus ball trajectory by varying angle of bat while maintaining arm movements Example: Volleyball with one attacker and two defenders: in lab 7, looking at the difference in Graph of DRT: Y large = big difference (easy Discrimination Reaction Time (DRT): concerned height (the more alike two stimuli are similar, the task, LOW DRT)… Y small = big difference with time to respond with accuracy constant (hard task, more information, HIGH DRT) longer it will take a performer to respond) Example: Working in a lab, measuring height of female and male species, NO OVERLAP = no difficulty detection Real world example: Some of the males (right curve) are shorter than the females, NEED TO MAKE DECISION (CUT OFF), if given reward, moving cut of to the left, if fined with missing females, shifting cutoff to the right Problem: there is always overlapping Type 1 error: rejecting the null hypothesis when there is no difference Signal Detection Theory: there are two curves Type II error: accepting the null hypothesis when called left - noise and right - signal there is a difference Factors Environment: Example - the amount out light left hand side = CN, FA d’: distance between two curves DECISION: Large d’ = EASY = more correct (Hits + CN) Individual Differences: Example - your innate right hand side = MISS, HITS Low d’ = HARD = more error (FA and Misses) ability (your eyesight) This stage has the task of selecting the action the Concerned with accuracy to be 100%, unpaced Factors of Perceptual Performance Perceptual sensitivity: quality of the sense performer will produce. Expectancies about performer and rewards/ Beta: observers criterion (moves due to factors) Benefit: Detect objects outside central vision penalties: which sometimes give a reflex fixation, performer saves time by not making a fixation 1) what you think will happen but instead detects whether an object is present 2) affect most sporting situation (referees) or not BUT if need to identify, must switch visual Example: home team get fewer penalties or fouls attention by fixating with a saccade because they will get boo’d Example: QB in football only needs to know objects approaching bc they must be opponent Car Driving Study: NOVICE DRIVERS - less Benefit of SDT: allows these variables to be horizontal scanning (car in front only), fixate front coming to tackle, Hockey player needs to look for identified independently of one another and right direction, looked in rear less, made more teammate to make a pass Practical point: it is important for an UNSKILLED Example: umpire in baseball says strike or ball pursuit eye movements (merging highway) while performer to discriminate accurately first then fast (there are 2 choices which give 4 outcomes) SKILLED DRIVERS made eye fixations Real world neither 100% accurate or unlimited time GOOD = HIT, CN BAD = FA (TypeI), MISS (TypeII) Possible Problems - Video Example showed Ice Hockey Study: offensive player makes a shot, player passing to white jersey with peripheral but Peripheral Vision: perceiving stimuli not within NOVICE goal fixated more on the puck, SKILLED Assessing d’ and Beta: Example - 1) Umpire’s Payoff Matrix: want to avoid False alarms fixated more on the stick (cues), BOTH fixated on didn’t identify that it was a player on the bench, point of fixation Pattern Recognition: important to skilled criterion in the world serious: 50 million people (Strike when it was a ball) by shifting criterion both or passing to coach performers watching, batter does not swing (3 balls, 2 (beta) to the right strikes) 2) Linesman calls serve in tennis: sit on New Node a chair, yell if ball isn’t in box (looking for fault) Conclusions: Skilled performers know what Skilled vs. Unskilled Examples SKILLED = recognize pattern to skill, (A - WHITE LINE FADED, B - UNPOPULAR PLAYER, Changes? A: d’/perceptual sensitivity goes down (curves move CUES to look at in the environment EFFECTOR: PERCEPTION: recognize patterns faster (LTM) C - SERVER GETS MAD) d’ or Beta closer together, more overlap) more FA, less HIT The task of the effector mechanism is to Perception is a sensory stage where we decide if direction organize the motor system for the desired a stimulus is present and if so, what is it. what happens to FA and movement. HITS B: shift Beta to the left, more FA and more HIT Visual Acuity: how well you see things Static (SVA): reading something stationary Inspecting an Object: Complex patterns of Facts: C: shift Beta to the right, less FA, less HIT saccades and fixations Example: using glasses Limitation - 2-5 degree field of Dynamic (DVA): reading something in motion camera to record eye movements (looking at a view in central vision Visual Selective Attention: important bc we are Time to Contact (tau): the cue associated with statue produces images, staring = more Image is on fovea visual creatures Tau = size of image / velocity of expansion fixations) another study with kids demonstrated Must move eye to perceive clearly the timing of moving objects, cue for when that younger kid uses less fixations compared to contact will occur, when to initiate movement Evidence: some studies find eyesight is good, older (ball approached player) some say it doesn’t matter (.3-.4), SVA and DVA Problem: Where will ball be be at X when Y is zero? are innate (can’t change) BUT perception of Perception of Complex Patterns Optical Flow Field: the expansion and Evidence: car driving study - novice drivers Fixation: Kinesthesis and Audition: secondary patterns is what makes you a better performer contraction of all stimuli in your field of view, if looked to the right and low compared to skilled Eye is fixed Information INPUT Types
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