Questions for Topic 1-15.doc

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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 3020
Merv Mosher

Questions for Topic 1 Reading 1 What is the definition of skillSkill consists in the ability to bring about some end result with maximum certainty and minimum outlay of energy or of time and energy2 a Performing skills implies some desired environmetal goal b Give an example of this goal Holding a handstand in gymnastics3 What are 4 important features of the definition of skillFirst performing skills implies some desired environmental goalSecond to be skilled implies meeting this performance goal this end result with maximum certaintyThird a major feature in many skills is the minimization and thus conservation of the energy required for performance Finally another feature of many skills is for highly proficient performers to achieve their goals in minimum time4 The minimumenergy notion is deemed to reducelower which types of energysThis minimumenergy notion applies to organizing the action not only so the physiological energy costs are lower but also so the psychological or mental energy required is reduced5 What is the major contributor to the efficiency of a skilled performance A major contributor to the efficiency of skilled performance is practice6 What usually is a byproduct of speeding up performance Sloppy movements that have less certainty in terms of achieving the environmental goal7 What 3 concepts are valuable when wanting to achieve some welldefined environmental goal maximizing the achievement certainty minimizing the physical and mental energy costs of performance andminimizing the time used 8 What 3 elements are critical to almost any skill These three elements are critical to almost any skillPerceiving the relevant environmental featuresDeciding what to do and where and when to do itProducing organized muscular activity to generate movements 9 What do the postural components provide when performing a movement Postural components provide a platform to support the actions10 What component of movement brings the body or limb to the action Body transport or locomotor components move the body toward the point where the skill will take place11 What components are utilized when moving the fingers and wrists in a complex video game Manipulation components are coupled and coordinated with these other elements and can make up the major focus of the skill12 Why is it difficult to study the skill components efficiently A major problem for the study of skills therefore is the fact that the several components of skill are studied by widely different groups of scientists generally with little overlap and communication among them 13 What are cognitive psychologists primarily interested in Decisionmaking processes14 How do cognitive psychologists differ from psychophysicist Psychophysicists are those that study the branch of psychology that examines the relationships between objectives physical stimuli and subjective sensations these stimuli create when perceived Cognitive psychologists study the decision making processes15 What is the difference between an open skill and closed skill An open skill is one for which the environment is variable and unpredictable during the action A closed skill on the other hand is one for which the environment is stable and predictable16 Wrestling is an example of what kind of skill classification Open skill17 Why is chess a semipredictable environment Chess is a semipredictable environment because it there is only a limited number of moves you can make in chess but sometimes the opponent may make a move that you did not anticipate 18 What is the difference between a discrete skill and a continuous skill At one end of this dimension is a discrete skill which usually has an easily defined beginning and end often with a very brief duration of movement At the other end of this dimension is a continuous skill which has no particular beginning or end the behaviour flowing on for many minutes19 Give an example of both a discrete skill and continuous skill Discrete skill throwing or kicking a ballContinuous skill swimming20 In tracking what are the performers limb movements controlling One particularly important continuous skill is tracking in which the performers limb movements control a lever a wheel a handle or some other device to follow the movements of some target track21 What is a serial skill Between the polar ends of the discretecontinuous dimension is the serial skill which is often thought of as a group of discrete skills strung together to make up a new more complicated skilled action22 a What does the word serial imply in serial skill Here the word serial implies that the order of the elements is usually critical for successful performanceb Give an example of a serial skill Shifting car gears is a serial skill with three discrete shift lever action elements and accelerator and clutch elements connected in sequence to create a larger action23 How do serial skills differ from discrete skills Serial skills differ from discrete skills in that the movement durations are somewhat longer yet each movement retains a discrete beginning and end24 Why is throwing a dart a discrete skill Throwing a dart has a discrete beginning and end that is why it is called a discrete skill25 With a motor skill what is the primary determinant of success With a motor skill the primary determinant of success is the quality of the movement itself where perception and subsequent decisions about which movement to make are nearly absent26 How do motor skills differ from cognitive skills A cognitive skill mainly involves selecting what to do whereas a motor skill mainly involves how to do it
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