MIDTERM 1.docx

8 Pages
Unlock Document

York University
Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 3340
Angelo Belcastro

Human Development continuum:  Human development theories descrive the individual as moving from comparatively simple forms of existence to more complex and sophisticated levels (hierarchical perspective)  It is described by ages, stages, and domains   Embryonic period: conception to 8 weeks, it’s a very important period  Fetal period: 8 weeks to birth we undergo organogenesis  Neonatal period: 0-22 days after birth  Toddlerhood: immature walking  Early childhood: walking alone  Middle childhood: maturing of fundamental movements  Late childhood motor skills and functional performances  Adolescence-youth: puberty (biological) to maximum height  Adulthood and late adulthood: max height then sarcopenia  Not everyone in a stage or age possesses the same characteristics, movement, and/or behaviours  We go from reflexive movement phase to specialized movement phase  4 domains in human development: motor and physical (biological) and affective and cognitive (behavioural)  they are highly interactive (not discrete), they all influence behavior and movement, and they are reciprocal in movement  Development= changes in an individual’s level of functioning over time (in a hierarchical perspective)  Growth= increase in size (stature) of either the whole body or the size of specific parts  3 types of changes occur with growth: hyperplasia (number), hypertrophy (size), and accretion (contents)  Maturation= progressing toward an adult or mature state. Changes in both the magnitude/amount and the timing (rate of change or tempo) for varioations in physiological parameters can occur  Growth is quantitative, and maturation is qualitative  Relationship between ^ these two can be dependent (body grows, functions improve) or independent (where growth may slow, but maturation continues)  Motor development= a change in our ability to move as we go through our lifespan (quan and qual aspects)  Differentiation= from gross movement to fine precise movement  Integration= motor systems function together as ability progresses  PA= any body movement produced by skeletal muscles resulting in energy expenditure (quantitative)  TEE= REE+DEE(overcoming sedentary lifestyle)+AEE (health related PA, exercise, or training) Human Development theories: Phase stage theory (Erikson)  The oldest viewpoint, it describes the big picture without a lot of detail, talks about more the bigger issues, the stages and phases that someone is going through (10-12 stages), stages are sequential (can be skipped but not re- ordered). Not a lot of detail about behavior. Development task theory (Havighurst):  Important accomplishments to be achieved by a certain time for effective functioning, all needed for a smooth progression to higher levels of functioning. Used to predict behavior Developmental milestone theory (Piaget)  References accomplishments as strategic indicators of how far development has progressed, instead of task/products. Milestones may or may not be critical to the effective functioning, but they serve as guidelines against which to evaluate the rate and extent of development (more descriptive than predictive) History of human development: Precursor period (1787-1928):  Descriptive observation of human movement Maturation period (1928-1946):  Important component of biology that shapes human development, there was interest in motor development as the primary area (we went from descriptive to more looking at biological changes, and motor changes) Normative/descriptive period (1946-1970):  Dormant period to the 60’s, then norm referenced standards and tests were developed for motor performance for children. Biomechanical analysis of movement Process oriented period (1970-present)  Return to describing the process of movement not just the product. Information processing theory (first phase) and then the dynamical systems theory (second component, integrating systems) Applicable development research designs (how we know what we know)  Challenge in paediatric research studies is how to evaluate/study growth and maturation (using parameters of interest below)  Status= the current or attained level for individual or group (measurement is a critical variable)  Comparison= referred to reference data or standards (national or local)  Progress= change over time (rate)  Prediction= future state, either physical trait or performance  Tracking= how stable the parameter is over time, measured against a desired end point (similar to prediction, but with added data points)  Cross sectional study= 2 or more people or groups at one point in time  Pros= quick, efficient, and can observe age differences  Cons= age and cohort are confounded, can’t observe change, hard to determine appropriate ages, and assumes changes are due to change (when they actually aren’t  Longitudinal= same persons or groups over a long period of time  Pros= change can be observed across ages  Cons= age and time are confounded, assumes changes are due to age (but could be due to time), practice may result in inflated scores on successive attempts, administratively inefficient, and subjects that perform poorly are prone to dropout  Mixed longitudinal= different cohorts compared at different times  Pros= accounts for generational cohort effect  Cons= administratively inefficient, expensive, dropouts, and difficult to analyze statistically  Variation (measured in SD) is smaller in correlation studies (because there are two different cohorts), larger variation in cross sectional because bigger piece of pop is observed)  Threat to validity is the major concern in experimental designs  Threats to internal validity: history, maturation, testing, instrumentation, statistical regression, selection bias, experimental mortality, selection maturation interaction, and expectancy  Threats to external validity: reactive or interactive effects of testing (awareness/sensitivity to tests), interaction of selection bias and the experimental treatment (study works only on those with a certain characteristic), reactive effects of experimental arrangements (lab vs. real world), and multi treatment interference (prev T influences results of next T) Measurements and growth charts  Measurement of growth and patterns of change (size dependent) using: velocity and distance curve, and measurement in terms of validity, reliability, technique, etc.  Describing and screening results using: Growth charts (CDC and percentiles)  Assessing size independent changes with growth and maturation requires: scaling (ratio standards, or allometric)  Representative growth “distance” curves: Measuring height and weight  Teqhnique: need validity (measure) and reliability (process)  Instrumentation: calibrated  Distance curves (shows progression) of height and body mass against age :  Velocity curves of stature and body mass:  Different rates of growth within a child, and different parts of the body grow at different rates and times  Norm referenced standards: they describe (define a group or population) and screen (identify indiv’s at risk). BUT they change with the population  Criterion referenced standards: the gold standards, a level that needs to be attained. They assess, monitor, and predict  when using reference standards the source of data is VERY important: look at cohort and measurement  different body parts grow at different rates, graph showing sitting height as a ratio to stature  body segment size/biological maturity needs to be considered when assessing children (magnitude)  Aerobic capacity increases with body mass (30 to 75 kg, linear , then steep at 50, then linear again)  There is a size dependency of aerobic capacity  We need size independent factors by accounting for body size  Dimensionality theory= assumes that that body proportions and deviations remain constant (all parameters). All parts increase at the same rate  Scaling= based on dimensionality, looks at structural and functional consequences of size or scale among similar organisms  As we grow there is an increase in size, and it is attributed to functional changes (physical) that happen as we and others get bigger…how much increases size, and how much increases something else? How do we dissect this info?  Ratio standards: the y intercept is zero between two variables, relationship is linear, and similar variation occurs for the two  BUT assumptions are difficult to achieve, they are not always met to the same degree of rigor  Ratios overestimate functions of smaller people, and underestimate function of larger people, there is a migration towards the mean  Size dependent effects make a straight line, and size independent effect makes a diagonal (either negative or positive)  Every increase you saw (ex. BM/O2) along the age of the child was primarily size dependent  BMI= can’t be used in children and adolescents to determine nutritional caution, we have increased stature in the morning, and decreased weight. Can’t be used on athletes or those going through growth spurt  Healthy BMI= 18.5-24.9  Overweight=25 to 29.9  Allometry= tries to describe size dependency of the variable that you are looking at, but doesn’t assume linear relationship between function and size . Y= aM^b  a is the proportionality coefficient. The exponent determines the direction and magnitude of relationship  if b=1, Y increases in direct proportion to M  if b=o, there is no effect of mass on the variable  if b>1, the variable increases faster than mass. If b is negative, Y decreases as M increases like in stride frequency) SUMMARY  These equations (allometric) are purely for describing, no biological significance (like in dimensionality theory)  You can
More Less

Related notes for KINE 3340

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.