Midterm 2 for growth and maturation

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York University
Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 3340
Nickolas Wattie

1Lecture 9 Fundamental Movement skills Object Control Skills Overarm Throwingone of the most complex fundamental movements that can be divided into 3 parts Preparatory All movements directed away form the intended line of projection Phase Execution All movements performed in the direction of the throw Phase Follow through All movements following the release of the projectilethere are many developmental changes of throwing proposed by different people M Wild 1983 developed the 4 developmental stages of throwing There is movement that progresses from anteriorposterior plane to a horizontal one and the base of support changes from a stationary to a shifting position Lagendorfer 1980 Has many options and stepsStep 1 preparatory backswing Step 2 ball brought up beside the head upward forearm flexion and exaggerated elbow flexionOption 1 circular overhead preparatory movement with extended elbow Option 2 has a preparatory phase using a lateral swing backwardOption 3 uses a simply vertical lift of the throwing arm ndStep 4 by the 2 grade boys predominately use a windup baseball pitch type Roberton 1978 Presents longitudinal evidence for development stages within the forearm humerus and trunk components of an overarm throw Says development of different components can proceed at different rates in unique individs Seefeldt They note that there are large gender differences when it comes to throwing There is Reuschlein and a lag in development for girls and 60 of boys are able to exhibit stage 5 sooner Vogel 1972Stages of Throwing refer to lecture for figures Stage 1Throwing becomes posterioranterior directionFeet dont move with little trunk rotation Stage 2More rotation is seen and the performer may step forwardThe arm is brought forward in the transverse plan Stage 3There is ipsilateral armleg actionBall placed into throwing position above the shoulder by a vertical posterior motion of the arm at the time the ipsilateral leg is going forward Stage 4Movement becomes contralateral left leg forward right arm forward with right leg back and right arm backLittle to no rotation of the hips and spineStride forward provides BoS Stage 5Mature movement patterns and 60 of boys and girls are able to perform at specific developmental level 2Developmental performance trends for overarm throwingthere have been many techniques to measure distance accuracy and velocitythere are annual improvements for all and it is always shown that boysmen outperform girlswomen at all agesFactors that influence overarm throwing 5 InstructionInstruction significantly affects changes in throwing technique but not greater horizontal ball velocitiesA program that increases ROM can increase the stride length component of an overarm throwFor women a training program designed to improve throwing pattern is effective in improving foot action pelvic spine rotation but not arm action throwing distance and ball velocity KnowledgeThose with less knowledge are more awkward when throwing therefore knowledge influences performance in throwing Instructional cuesMust identify critical cuesThese critical cues are 1 take a long step toward target with opposite foot of throwing arm 2 take your arm straight down and stretch it back to make an L with the arm 3 watch the target and release ball when you see your fingers Ball sizeWhen the ball is too big for the thrower thrower resorts to a less mature throwing pattern or will use 2 hands instead of 1Angle of ball releaseMature throwing angle is 15 deg Arm dominated throwing has a pattern in which the ball is released to early at an angle of 49 def linked with poor grasp ball weight or sizeGender Differences in Overarm ThrowingThe GREATEST gender differences in fundamental movement skills is founded in throwingSuccess for boys in throwing relates to Heredity arm muscle mass or sociocultural factors like having an adult male to teach one Success for girl is associated with greater weight more fat larger joints greater arm and leg masses compared to weaker females Best predictors for girls that will have a more developed throw are Sport participation and presence of an older brother in the house For boys it is fathers involvement in sport and fatherson skill play Catching The action of brining an airbourne object under control by using the hands and armsTwohanded catching Developmental aspects first attempt at stopping a rolling ball is to sit on the floor with legs spread apart legs trap the ball and hands trap the ballfirst attempt at stopping an airbourne object is passive in which the child uses outstretched arms and body to catch 2 yoFocuses on the tosser and not the ballMaintains a static position and reacts late 5 yoAnticipates some changes in flight pattern of ballFocus on all thrower ball and handsMovements are correct but in a slow manner 15 yoPredict balls flightCarries out preparatory sequence to catch the ballMovements are smooth
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