Growth Midterm notes.docx

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York University
Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 3340
Nickolas Wattie

Growth Midterm notes 2/12/2012 12:31:00 PM Domains of Human Development  Affective: Social influences, emotional  Motor: movement & changes in them*  Psychomotor: voluntary movements from higher brain regions  Cognitive: learning*  Physical: changes in the body Elements of development  Multifactorial: no single factor direct change  Individual: Rate of change varies for the people  Directional: development has an ultimate goal  Sequential: certain motor patterns precede others  Cumulative: Behaviors are additive  Qualitative: developmental changes involve a quality aspect  *My Iguana Dances Slowly Coldly Quietly  Development = Growth + Maturation  Growth is the structural aspect (quantitative)  Maturation is the functional change (qualitative) Stages:  Prenatal: conception – birth  Germinal: (0-2 wks) o Oocyte release in ovary, fertilization o Zygote moves towards uterus o Morula enters uterus = blastocyst (attaches to wall)  Embryonic (3-8) o Endoderm: digestive & respiratory o Ectoderm: nervous, sensory receptors, skin o Mesoderm: circulatory, muscular, skeletal, excretory, reproductive o Placenta, umbilical cord, amnion develop o *teratogens have greatest effects here  Fetal (9-birth) o Rapid growth o Organ system differentation  Infancy: birth - 1  Neonatal (0 – 22 days)  Toddlerhood (walking alone)  Early childhood: 4-7  Middle childhood: 7-9  Late childhood: lasts 3 years  Adolescence: puberty, girls 11, boys 13  Early adulthood: when reaches max height, girls 20, boys 22, until the age of 40  Middle adulthood: 40-60  Late adulthood: 60+ Mountain of motor development  Reflexive: prenatal stage  Preadapted: voluntary movements  Fundamental Patterns: fundamental locomotor skills, object control, fine motor control  Context Specific: peaks in movement skills  Skillful: requires motivation, opportunity, instruction, practice  Compensation: injury or aging  Epigenetic period: time of development sensitive to outside factors DRUGS:  12.2% of pregnant women use alcohol  Fetal Alcohol spectrum disorders:  Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)  Alcohol related neurodevelopmental disorders (ARND)  Alcohol related birth defects (ARBD)  Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS)  IQ<70  Poor motor coordination (<50%)  ADD risk  Weak suckling reflex  Cocaine causes a 25% increased risk of preterm birth  Causes brain damage  Slower reflexes  Increase SIDS  Mental retardation beyond 2 yrs  Tobacco  Contains CO, nicotine  13.8% of women smoke during pregnancy  2x more likely to be stillborn  small for gestational age  heart defects  respiratory disorders  **visual impairment  lack of oxygen to fetus  Marijuana  Does not alter fetal growth  Little research  Rx drugs  Anticoagulants: bad for NS and increase miscarriages  Non-Rx drugs  Acetaminophen (Tylenol, Aspirin) o Bleeding in skull  Ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) o Can contain alcohol (FAS, ARND)  Naproxen Sodium (Aleve) o No side effects seen  Obstetrical meds  Enter fetal circulations quickly  Babies are born addicted  Seasons of birth effect hypotheses:  Viral: winter months have an increase in flu exposure  Temp: cold temp might lower fetal blood circulation  Sunlight/vitamin D: Vit D affects cell proliferation Maternal Diseases:  Viral  Rubella – 80% deafness  HIV – ¼ of infected mothers pass it on, lowered now due to awareness and vaccination o Loss of developmental milestones o Impaired brain growth o Muscle weakness  Parasitic  Toxoplasmosis – from cat litter o Mental retardation o Motor abnormalities o Deafness, visual impairment  Hematologic  Rh incompatibility: danger when Rh+ and Rh- = Rh+ child st o 1 offspring unaffected o body thinks baby is a foreign object and attacks it o 98% are protected if mother receives drug after first birth o cause: anemia, immature RBC, edema, jaundice  Endocrine  Diabetes: mother’s hyperglycemia makes baby hyperinsulinemic o Affects lungs and brain o Spina bifida o Heart defects Genetic disorders  Down syndrome  1/700  mothers over 35 have 5x increased risk  IQ 20-60  Mental age stays at 8  Delayed walking 1 year or more  Heart disease  Short stature  Mental retardation  Phenylketonuria  1/14,0000  Cystic fibrosis  30,000 cases  half die by 30  Sickle cell trait  No problem with PA  Decreases odds of getting malaria  Sickle cell disease  2 parents with trait: 50% will have trait, 25% will have disease, 25% normal  Fragile x syndrome  Extra chromosome on #21  Causes autism  Delay in motor skills  Playing games is helpful Types of prenatal diagnostic procedures:  Ultrasound  Amniocentesis: fluid sample taken through abdominal wall  Chorionic villus sample: detects abnormalities sooner than an amniocentesis  2 methods, one through needle through cervix, other through abdominals  Alpha-fetoprotein test: blood test  Screening test (too many false positives)  Triple marker screening blood test  Detects down syndrome in women younger than 35  Fetal brain should achieve 25% of its mature weight before birth  Protein intake is important for fetal development  Low birth weight: <2500 grams  Very low: <1500 grams  Extreme: <500  Small for gestational age  does not necessary mean premature  caused by inadequate nutrition  decreased brain development  low motor abilities (may be due to over protective parents)  Appropriate for gestational age  Even if born early as are less risk than as SGA  Will catch up by the age of 2  Large for gestational age  Birth injuries are common  Diabetic mothers  Preeclampsia: hypertension, can develop in women who are exercising > 420 mins/wk Programs to enhance motor development  No programming  Don’t emphasize specific practice  Programming  Parents take active role in moving baby  Walkers, bouncers  Not enough research to recommend one or the other  Swim programs shouldn’t be introduced until child is 4  Negatives: hypernatremia, giardia  Infant swimming programs may increase risk of asthma and bronchitis later in life  Based on Johnny & Jimmy: readiness, practice, attitude and physical growth are important factors that influence human movement  Environmental stimulation can be affective if it is:  Readiness  Specific time limit  Permanent and durable imprint  Reflexive movements occur during the last 4 months of prenatal life and the first 4 months after birth Primitive refelxes  Palmar Grasp  Lasts until 4 months  Leads to voluntary reaching and grabbing  Suckling  Prenatal and postnat
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