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KINE 4010 Midterm 2

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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 4010
David Hood

Pg 46When we exercise our muscles we get some signals happening which will affect the genes in our nuclei it has aoreffect on genes o DNA is fixed in terms that it is there but what is turned on or off depends on adaptation o Changes in Gene expression brought about by signals provoked by we stimulus exercise cold weather etcMore HLDH means higher lactate threshold more ST fibres increase La Threshold o ST increase La threshold because have more mitochondria than FT and they have HLDHTake body up to high altitude will shift the threshold acutely lower bc oxygen delivery is lower exposure to environment like climbing KillimanjaroGene expression is the turning on or off of genes depending on environmentadaptations With exercise we can have HLDH increase and MLDH decreaseTF Transcription Factors proteins that accelerate or decelerate transcription o TF1 bind to RNA polymerase to increase HLDH in response to exercise o TF2 decrease MLDH Pg47Talking about changes in mitochondria When exercising three basic signals that turn on genes in the DNA which leads to muscle adaptations and improved endurance 1 Calcium released from SR when you exercise 2 Break down of ATP to ADP some of it forms AMP 3 When Mitochondria start to respire it starts to consume oxygen heavily it produces molecules called Reactive Oxygen Species o Mitochondria is main producer of ROS in muscle cell o Dont need to activate all three to change genes but exercise just turns all three onAll three are elevated during exercise and activate a protein called Kinase an enzyme that phosphorylate things out of phosphate on something separates whatever is on a phosphate o When a phosphate is added on to something itbecomes more active or less activeIf the protein is a Transcription Factor it can enter the nucleus and affect the transcription of a geneThe synthesis of more protein or of different proteins via this mechanism leads to muscle adaptationsAdaptations occur with activation or reduction of certain genesLots of people studying how muscles adapt and about gene expressionMitochondria is a network that gets bigger and expands sometimes break off and expand some moreMitochondria increase happens in muscles that are active Pg 48You always use fat and carbohydrate to exercise run out of one you stopWhere do these substrates come from o There is fat inside muscle Intramuscular Triglyceride and outside muscle we produce Fatty Acids so that fat outside can be used as an energy source then taken up in to the muscle o Triglyceride releases Glycerol as a substrate that goes to the liver as a GNG substrateWhen you breakdown a Triglyceride you get 3 FA and 1 Glycerol o Same for Carbohydrates there is Intramuscular Glycogen inside muscle and Liver Glycogen outside muscle o Liver Glycogen will form glucose that is then released into the blood then to muscle o Endogenous inside muscle source of substrate o Exogenous outside muscle source of substrate Breakdown Glucose you get heat and some ATPO2 consumed to CO2 produced for 1 mol of Glucose ratioGlucose Oxidation o 66 1 Respiratory Quotient RQo CO2 made and O2 consumedFFA Oxidation o Beta oxidation breakdown of carbons o 1623 07RQ tells us what substrate we are using for energy and how many Kcals we are burning per LO2 consumed o If you get 1 then you burning Carbohydrate only o If it is 07 then it is Fat only o At 085 you are burning 50 from both sources Pg49Fatty acids enter Boxidation and comes in to Acetyl CoA it misses out on the Pyruvate dehydrogenase step and does not produce the same amount of CO2 as Carbon from the Glycolysis cycle and only produces 2 out of 3 CO2The extra CO2 that comes from the buffering of Lactic acid causes the RQ value to become less valid so with increased Lactic acid production RQ becomes less valid Pg50RQ tells us what substrate we use during exerciseWhen value is 1 then 100 of energy is from CHO carbohydrateWhen value is 07100 FatWhen burning 100 CHO when you consume 1 LO2 you burn 5 kcal
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