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KINE 4020 Midterm 1 Notes

52 Pages

Kinesiology & Health Science
Course Code
KINE 4020
Roger Kelton

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Lecture 1- Jan.6 Slide 8 • In Health there is a Continuum • When healthy there is anAbsence of disease • Optimal is you can do the things you want to do • Unhealthy is when some disease inhibits you from doing things you want to do Slide 9 • Malnutrition and illness causes • Altered metabolism and loss of appetite • Impaired nutrition status and • Weakened immunity goes to • Worsened illness • Further deterioration of nutrition status Slide 10 • Risk factors include o Daily/occasional smoking o Heavy drinking o Low fruit/ vegetable consumption leads to low Vitamins o Inactivity o Obesity Slide 11 • Leading causes of death: Cancer, Heart disease, and Stroke • Diabetes Slide 13 • Nutrition is the study of food including how food nourishes our bodies and how food influences our health • New discipline of science- Nutritional Genomics o Looking at the effects of nutrition on genes Slide 14 • Nutrition is important for Physical health • If health is good then it promotes positive Spiritual and Emotional health • Social health, if you look healthy you feel healthy, some people who are so big they are scared to get up b/c scared they can’t get up • Occupational health- if healthy you will be able to do your job Slide 15 • Every organ can influence every organ • Aglass of wine is good for elevating the good type of Cholesterol, HDL • Moderation and Common sense Slide 16 • Making Obesity a disease is bad b/c o Drugs will be used to treat it o Takes responsibility off the individual • Doctors can now charge for Obesity.45-64 yrs old highest % (30%) • Rise of obese children • Obese parents lead to obese children Lecture 2- Jan.08 Slide 17 • Strong link between abdominal Obesity and Diabetes (insulin resistance) • Largest cause of blindness is Diabetes Slide 21 • Latch key kids- kids who need to go home right after school for safety concerns, so they play games at home Slide 22 • We are now more service oriented and sedentary Slide 24 • There are social and behavioural motives to choosing foods o Like Christmas dinners and personal preferences for behavioural • Preferences can change like from double double to black coffee Slide 25 • Social interactions- going out for coffee • Convenience- going through drive thrus to get food for your kids • Eat when you are bored Slide 26 • Religious beliefs- can’t eat certain foods • Environmental concerns- vegans • Fortified foods- adding calcium to orange juice Slide 27 • Media- influences kids and kids tell parents to buy it • Finances • Urban can access cultural foods, Rural need to go really far to buy food Slide 28 • Energy substrates: Carbs, Protein, Lipids are all carbon chained based • We need sufficient amounts of water • Minerals are like iron, calcium, zinc, manganese • Vitamins • Inorganic- water and minerals • Organic-Vitamins and 3 substrates Slide 31 • Energy substrates are called Macronutrients • Vitamins and Minerals are Micronutrients Slide 32 • Carb= 4 kcal/g • Protein= 4kcal/g • Fat= 9 kcal/g • Akcal is the amount of energy required to raise 1ml, 1 degree Slide 33 • How much energy in each food depends on the Macronutrient composition • Using nutrients you break the bonds, when you take in too much energy you store as Fat • Materials for building body tissues • Regulation of bodily activities Slide 34 • Water soluble Vit- B, C o Need more of this b/c you pee it out • Fat soluble- ADEK o Don’t need as much, stored in Fat • Essential nutrients are nutrients that come from diet • Non-essentials are those that you can manufacture Slide 35 • Some minerals can accumulate like iron, lead, gold can poison you b/c we don’t have a great capacity to eliminate them Slide 36 • Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) • Standards defined for Energy nutrients, other dietary components o Physical activity b/c if you exercise you diet would be different Slide 38 • Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) o Sufficient for half of population • Recommended DietaryAllowances (RDA) o Meets about 98% of the healthy population Slide 40 • Adequate intake- is a guesstimate how much nutrient would be good to sustain your health • Tolerable Upper Intake Level- as intake increases above UL the risk of adverse effects increases o VitAif you take in too much it will kill you o Polar bear Liver is a big source of VitA- Inuits knew that if you ate too much of it, you will go blind and die Lecture 3- Jan.10 Slide 40 • We were talking about some of the reference indices used in assessing quality of nutrient intake • Want to mention Upper Limit (UL)- certain nutrients can become toxic and cause problems like VitA • With things you eat it is not always “more is better,” in some cases more is far from better o In most things you don’t have to worry about this, like you can have a lot of Carbohydrates  The worse thing that will happen to you is convert that extra energy into body fat, it won’t kill you…right away o If you eat foods with heavyArsenic metals, you will damage your liver and die from it, some foods you have to worry about Slide 41 • Adequate intake- Aterm that is when you don’t have clear cut evidence, specifically how much is proper and good for an individual cohort, it is a guesstimate , generally what should be good • UL- where nutrient becomes toxic Slide 42 • What we should keep in mind is that there are grey areas, marginal areas where you can still be okay- you don’t go from danger to safety Slide 43 • Estimate energy requirement (EER) o This is so individual but for populations there will be a generalization Slide 44 • 20 to 30 thousand calories a day consumed for people doing triathlons o Working out in the woods those people could eat a stack of pancakes for breakfast to sustain Slide 45 • Nutrition information and Misinformation o There will be a lot of claims about dietary aids, supplements, and specific foods o Satisfaction guaranteed/ 100% money back guaranteed- really hard to get your money back, they will keep delaying you until you give up o Quick and Easy fixes- there are no quick and easy fixes, you have to work at it- diet and exercise takes time or like taking two Tylenols a day, you can’t double up on the dose to quicken the process o Natural/ Organic- maple syrup sold with the label organic- where does maple syrup come from? Maple trees, how can it be inorganic  Gold, arsenic, lead all natural minerals, tiny amounts are okay but large amounts are not o Time tested- what times that mean? One hour? 6 months? o Clinically proven- who runs the clinic? Who did the testing? What does it mean? o Paranoid accusations- try to scare you- if you don’t take this, this is what will happen o Personal testimonies- there is a company that write testimonies, and other companies hire these companies- Weakest type of evidence in terms of benefit of product o Meaningless medical jargon- ex “Beats the hunger stimulation point (HSP)”- this does not exist but if you didn’t know you would fooled Slide 46 • Anybody can be a Nutritionist- there is no registration, so you can give diet counseling to people o But they can still be very good if they have enough experience and knowledge Slide 47 • Because things are presented in the media does not mean the person presenting it know what they are talking about o What kind of study was it? How was the study done? What kinds of statistics were used? • Validity of taking multi-vitamin pills- it’s a billion dollar industry- companies want you to believe that you need to take these supplements so that you do not get diseases o You don’t need these pills if you are eating reasonably good healthy meals, if you have concerns just take a Generic multiple vitamin pill, the least expensive one, you will cover your base- won’t go into toxicity o People who eat McDonalds regularly will not be getting their vitamins, so they should take the Multi-vitamin pills but for people who have reasonable meals with lots of colours don’t need to be concerned Slide 48 • There is a Registered Dietitian college and people in it have a RPD and they have the knowledge Slide 49 • Physicians did not take nutrition back in the 50’s and 60’s so they have limited knowledge Chapter 2 Slide 51 • Planning a healthy diet needs o Adequate nutrients- both energy, vitamins, minerals, and electrolytes that you need to promote growth and development in your body o There should be a Balance- like CHO, proteins, fats o Varied- should be colourful like fruits and vegetables Slide 52 • High nutrient density food- fruits and vegetables- if you are to eat a food with 100 calories then it is better to eat these type of foods than others (ex. Yogurt vs Candy bar) • Low density nutrient food- the lowest is sugar, just calories Slide 53 • Should read food labels with dietary guidelines Slide 54 • Canada food labels are required on most products and Nutrition facts, they give you an idea of what you are consuming • There are some Nutrient Content claims and Health claims but they must be valid, if not valid they will be pulled off the shelf to be relabelled Slide 55 • Reading Nutrition Facts will give you an idea of the quality of the food • Zero means allowed 1 or 2%, it is still low enough that you do not need to worry about it • Listing ingredients in descending order by weight- you see sugar at the very bottom and think that is good, but if you don’t know scientific names then you will miss that there are components of sugar that are listed higher in the list like glucose, and fructose Slide 56 • Abigger view of previous slide Slide 59 • Some settings have certain guidelines like there is a rule for reduction of fat in Hospitals and Prisons because those people are captive and they have to eat what is served to them, and there are Registered Dieticians making menus to follow the guidelines o 20 years ago coronary heart disease was going up so a rule was put out for a great reduction in fat in diets, thinking it would reduce the disease o Dieticians rose up and said they can’t do that, cannot provide a healthy diet to hospitals when so much fat is restricted o Fat is primary flavour carrier in food Slide 60 • Canada has a rainbow in terms of general recommendations of general quantity of food to eat Slide 61 • There is a book called Eating Well with Canada’s Food Guide which gives an indication of how to follow • It was designed to reduce risk of chronic disease and obesity and to get all the nutrients without having to take all the supplements Slide 63 • Breaks it down to age, since adults will be consuming more Slide 64 • Examples are given Slide 65 • Recommendations suggested • Dark green because it tends to have calcium and more Vit B • Orange ones have VitA • Frying things will added more calories Slide 66 • Grain products- use a variety, go with whole grain rather than just white • Choose grains low in sugar Slide 67 • % in milk is the % of fat • Go with the low fat yogurt and cheese Slide 68 • Beans, lentils, and tofu are very good alternatives of proteins- have more of these and less actual meat • Fish is also a good alternative to red meat and chicken o Fish has some omega 3 • Trim off visible fat- it has saturated fat and cholesterol o Like skin • Some people say no to eating certain foods instead of eating a little bit of it because it seems easier o Sometimes these people will start having an obsession with these foods that they can’t eat and start having dreams about them (sausages, donuts, cookies) o So eat some once in a while and eat less, off set it by exercising before or after Slide 69 • Oils and fats- go for the unsaturated instead of saturated, beware of trans fat Slide 70 • Different ages have different criteria’s Slide 71 • Relative portions • Alady made an actual plate like this Slide 73 • Vegans- don’t eat any animal product • Ovo vegetarian- they don’t eat meat or dairy products but eat eggs • Ovo- Lacto vegetarians- eat eggs and dairy but no meat (or just red meat) • Raw vegan- just eat raw fruits and raw vegetables because they believe that processing destroys vitamins and minerals • Flexitarians- try to be a vegetarian as much as possible until they pass by that hamburger stand and couldn’t control themselves Lecture 4- Jan.13 Slide 76 • Mediterranean diet does promote health • Found in populations around Mediterranean sea, like Italy and Greece • Not a high amount of meat, more fish than meat- lots of grain products and fruits and vegetables • Lots of Olive oil which has things called MUFAs ( Monounsaturated FattyAcids) • This diet is pretty protective in Coronary Heart Disease • This food guide suggests Wine in moderation ( Red Wine) which seems to act as an anti- oxidant, it promotes HDL and reduces LDL Chapter 3- Digestion,Absorption, and Transport Slide 78 • We eat food in big chunks, we need to break them into small portions so that we can absorb it into our bodies • Digestions is the process in breaking the food into small units, and thenAbsorption is getting it in our bodies so that it can be circulated • Each cell has its own metabolism so we need energy for that • The total amount of energy of all your cells produces heat for body temperature • Need nutrients to build and maintain tissue Slide 79 • Taste is a big factor when we choose food but there are other factors too • There is a correlation with hunger and external stimulus like Sight and Smell • Touching in terms of the oral cavity can give a positive or negative quality • Hearing like popcorn popping which could make you want to eat Slide 80 • Hunger is Physiological- the desire to eat food to meet our biological needs • Appetite is Psychological desire to eat foods- ex. Eating desserts after having a full meal • Satiety-feeling of being full and satisfied Slide 81 • Almost dead centre in the brain is the Hypothalamus in the Thalamic region of the brain, Hypo is under- this is where you regulate desire and activity towards eating or not • The Hunger centre turning it on or not • There will be some type of feedback signals that come up to the Hypothalamus and that will direct or diminish acquiring foods Slide 82 • Eating will stretch the stomach which sends messages to the brain to say okay you can shut down this FoodAcquisition drive • Hormones like Insulin or Glucagon which regulate blood glucose circulate around the whole body, to the brain as well and that gives an indication- when you eat glucose levels will go up and will tell the brain to stop eating o Glucagon works the opposite, when you have low glucose in blood it will trigger behaviour to feed yourself • When you digest food temperature will go up and brain detects this to stop eating • Special hormones like Gastrin, Secretin and CholeCystoKinin which go into circulation and the brain reads it giving an indication that Digestion is going on which results in decreasing eating behaviour Slide 83 • Homeostasis which is coming back to normal status Slide 84 • Food in the stomach causes the cells of the stomach wall to start releasing Gastrin which goes into circulation up to the brain o Then comes back to the stomach which causes the Parietal cells in the walls of the stomach to release Hydrochloric acid into the stomach which starts the digestion of protein o pH in the stomach drops to a very acidic environment around 1.5 acidity o This acidic environment causes the stop of circulation of Gastrin o The brain picks this up and shuts off eating behaviour  This is an example of Negative Feedback- something positive happens and feedback to the brain to stop eating Slide 85 • 3 hormones that we should know: Gastrin, Secretin, Cholecystokinin • Gastrin responds to Food in the stomach- released from the Stomach wall- Circulation back to the stomach it’s an Endocrine hormone- causes Parietal cells to release Hydrochloric acid secreted into the stomach • Secretin- when you have an acidic mixture of food, it is put in spurts into the first part of the Small Intestine called the Duodenum o Very acidic substances are put in, so we need to neutralize it, the walls the Duodenum will release Secretin into circulation which will cause the Pancreas to release a Bicarbonate in the Exocrine ducts dumped into the Duodenum which will neutralize the acidity  Bicarbonate is a buffering solution o The brain picks up on this and knows that there is food passing through the intestines so there is a signal to alleviate hunger activity • Cholecystokinin (CCK)- Also released from the Duodenum with the presence of fat or protein in the Intestine, CCK goes to the Gallbladder to release Bile which is dumped into the Duodenum to help fat digestion o CCK also goes to the Pancreas which releases Bicarbonate and enzymes into the Small intestines and Duodenum to digest Carbohydrates, fats, and proteins  This is the beginning of major digestion • General circulation of all three of these to the brain regulates eating behaviour Slide 86 • Satiation- some foods have a higher Satiation value then others like Protein, and Carbs have the lowest • Bulky foods provide a sense of satiety • Solid foods are more filling than semi-solid foods or liquids (apple vs apple sauce) Slide 87 • We use food all the time to maintain relationships (going for a coffee to chat) • Food orientated on certain holidays • Planning a wedding- pizza or lobster and steak? Social status, social prestige • Some stop eating during stress or eat a lot as a coping strategy • Prisoners go on hunger strikes and they need to be force fed through tubes so that they don’t die • Reward, Punish, or Influence behaviour- prisoners being thrown in and getting only water and bread for a few days, Parents say eat your peas or you don’t get dessert • Customs and cultures- being invited to a friend’s house to eat Slide 88 • Elimination- removal of food that we don’t digest or absorb Slide 89 • Food& Water come in, we want to nutrients from it to get into our circulation • Those that cannot be digested will pass right through • Kidney will filter out the minerals, salts, and water • Cells will get nutrients from the blood • We need O2 in and CO2 out to keep the metabolism going Slide 90 • Mechanical digestion- the first part of digestion- we tear apart food with our teeth • When you eat corn you grind the it and you can get the corn starch, if you don’t mechanically break it down it will pass right through you, we can’t digest the cellulose wrapping • Chemical digestion which is enzymatic digestion that breaks large food molecules down, separates parts of the molecule Slide 91 • Enzymes make something go fromAto B • Sucrose consist of Glucose and Fructose bonded together o Enzyme Sucrase binds to Sucrose, this then breaks the bond and Sucrose is broken up o Once broken the enzyme releases to be recycled Slide 92 • GI tract is a long flexible tube • Pathway is: Mouth EsophagusStomachSmall Intestine Large Intestine Rectum Anus • Internal part is called the Lumen • From oral cavity to the end there is a hollow opening the food will pass through Slide 93 • Mouth has mechanical digestion and some chemical digestion o Down through Esophagus to the first large digestive system the Stomach o Then to the beginning of the Small Intestine, the first part is the Duodenum (10” C shape cap) then we have our 16-18 foot long Small intestine (small because of diameter and not the length)- Most of the digestion and absorption occurs here o Large intestine has some continued digestion, mostly from bacteria- there is absorption of water and minerals and some vitamins that are produced by the bacteria in the intestine o The undigested and unabsorbed is prepared for evacuation and exits through the distal end of the GI tract Slide 94 • Phases of Digestion • First is the Cephalic phase- this is your head-anticipation (Pavlovian response: dog salivate example) • Gastric- down in the stomach- secretion of hormones, beginning of mixing, beginning of Peristalsis (contract and relaxation)- mixes food with digestive products and helps food pass through GI tract o Gastrin influence can have an effect on it- started the release of saliva- Gastrin feedback can shut off the Cephalic phase (Negative feedback) • Intestinal phase- once you get food passing into the Duodenum and Small Intestines, there is high acidity, Digestive products are released in there to mediate a response (CCK and Gastric Inhibitory Peptide[GIP- slows down the absorption process] ) Slide 95 • Digestion begins in the mouth with the Mechanical digestion • Chemical digestion also takes place with Salivary amylase- an enzyme produced by the salivary glands that begins chemical digestions of carbohydrates like starches o The only chemical in the mouth o Theoretically you could take anAmylase blocker (Starch blockers) and starchy foods will just pass through and you won’t get the energy from the food and that is great for weight control  This is not entirely true because the breakdown although will not occur in the mouth will occur in the Small Intestines Slide 96 • Peristalsis- circular and longitudinal muscles working together along the GI tract to help mix food being digested with digestion enzymes or HCl acid • Stomach has three muscles and can help with mixing Slide 97 • Longitudinal, Circular, Diagonal • Stomach can get bigger to accommodate eating a lot Slide 98 • Sphincters which will regulate food from one area to another Slide 99 • Circular contraction which mixes the food and Peristalic wave that propels the food down the system in spurts • Partially digestive food is called Chyme Slide 100 • Secretions of Digestion • Five organs: Salivary glands- Stomach- Pancreas- Liver- Small intestines • Secretions: water and enzymes – proteins facilitate chemical reactions- Hydrolysis is the breaking apart of two molecules at a particular bond using enzymes and having water present Slide 101 • Mastication (process of chewing) andAmylase from salivary glands in mouth • Passes through Esophagus • Gets into Stomach, production of HCl because of stretching because of release of Gastrin goes around and cause HCl to be produced o That stops digestion of Carbohydrates because the enzymes are proteins and so the HCl denatures that protein therefore there is no more Carbohydrate digestion occurring in the stomach o But you will have cells called Chief cells which release Pepsin which digests proteins o Some digestion of fat in Stomach but not much • Passes into Duodenum, there is a Sphincter there called the Pyloric Sphincter- this will regulate the partly digested material which is very acidic into the Duodenum o There is a smaller Sphincter called the Cardiac Sphincter which helps stop back flow of this acidic material back into the Esophagus o Every once in a while you make get a feeling of what is called anAcid reflux which is a too big a volume or a relaxation of the Sphincter and the material will come back up to the Esophagus o You may feel like you are having a mild heart attack because the Heart is so close to there o Stomach stapling so that the stomach is smaller- when you eat too much there will be a back flow which hurts thus negative reinforcement- It hurts, so I better not eat that much Slide 103 • Saliva moistens food, protects from oral cavity, and some Carbohydrate digestion • Gastric juice are mostly Protein digestion o There is a lot of Mucus along the lining to protect of the Stomach from the acidic and from the Protein breaking down enzymes because the walls are basically proteins o On occasion when there is damage to the walls of the Stomach or to Esophagus or Duodenum you may have an Ulcer that may occur  What happens then is the acidity stimulates the nerve receptors and is extremely painful- Meds are given to try to stimulate more Mucous to cover the lining Slide 104 • Pancreatic juice- it is an Exocrine gland so its released from the Pancreas into the Duodenum o Will pass into the Small Intestines where Peristalsis will mix it o Digestive enzymes from Pancreas and Sodium Bicarbonate to neutralize theAcid in the Duodenum • From Gallbladder you have Bile produced in the Liver and stored in the Gallbladder o When fat is in the Duodenum, CCK is released causes Gallbladder to release Bile to Duodenum to breakdown the fat Slide 107 • Gastric juice is very acidic (2.0)- denaturizes protein, helps in the beginning of digestion • Saliva is pretty neutral like water (7.0) • Bile is slightly basic (8.5) which will help neutralize some of the Gastric juice Slide 108 • Vitamins and minerals will be absorbed in Small and Large Intestines • Undigested residues will be like fibre, Carbohydrates that you can’t digest- because it is bulky and contains water it tends to promote Peristalsis and promotes free flow of food from Proximal to distal end of the Large intestine which is the Colon • In the Colon you have an active bacterial colony which will ferment some of the foods we eat, producing gas and some energy which help the Epithelial cells, some of this energy we can use as a potential energy substrate • Water and dissolved salts in the Large intestines will be reabsorbed Lecture 5- Jan.15 Slide 110 • There will be some vitamin and mineral absorption, some of the vitamins are those that you have ingested and others are those that were produced from bacteria • There will be Undigested residues, that’s the Fibre and Carbohydrates that you cannot break down, so it will pass entirely through o It will bind onto water and facilitate evacuation o Will keep the Large intestine healthy in terms of nice strong muscles for Peristaltic action • There is a large bacterial colony, both anaerobic and aerobic type of bacteria that are in the Large intestine o Some of these do produce the vitamins that we require and will also ferment some of the Fibres and Carbohydrates that we cannot digest o In that fermentation process, approximately 5% of the energy can be derived from the fermented fibres o When you think about legumes and beans the fermentation produces gas, that is a by-product of it, but it is also producing some energy  Some of that energy actually is absorbed into the Epithelial cells in the Large Intestine as an energy source  Also helps in maintaining the integrity of those intestinal cells o Recyclable material is some of the water and salts which is absorbed in the Colon as well Slide 111 • Eating a sandwich • You will start your Mechanical digestion- some Carbohydrates will be digested, Fibres will be crushed exposing nutrients underneath • In the Stomach, Carbohydrates digestion stops, Protein is digested, very little fat is digested • Small intestine, all three substrates are digested and absorbed here • Large intestine, reabsorption of water and minerals, fermentation of undigested materials, and preparation of evacuation of materials Slide 112 • Small intestine about 10 feet long • Large surface area- microvilli to increase surface area • 3 types of absorption occur: Simple and facilitated diffusion andActive transport Slide 114 • Simple diffusion across the Epithelial cells- these are the cells that line the inside of the GI tract o Simple Diffusion means going from High concentration to Low concentration • Facilitated diffusion- same thing- high (outside) to low- passes through using a Carrier • Active transport- same as Facilitated but requires energy to transport from one side to the other side Slide 115 • Villi and Microvilli hugely increase surface area • Crypts are clusters of cells that produce intestinal juices • Goblet cells which produce mucous that protect the whole GI tract Slide 116 • Stomach has ridges • Down in the Small Intestines the ridges persist and are called Rugae, o On the ridges are Villis, they are then covered by Microvilli  Within the Villis there is a Central Lacteal, this is part of the Lymphatic system, and the Lymphatic system is used for the absorption of fats and lipids 1. Lipids will be absorbed across the Epithelial cell 2. Pass into the Central Lacteal 3. Then go into the Lymphatic system 4. Then the Lymphatic system circulates around and is dumped into the duct, which dumps into the vein that goes right to the Superior vena cava CLAVICLE?  Fats, most of the fats in digestion, then absorption, then Central Lacteal, by-pass the heart into the blood above the heart, entering the heart through superior vena cava, and from there into the heart and then to general circulation o There is also an extensive capillary network around the Central Lacteal just underneath the surface of the Epithelial cells- absorbed into here are Carbs, Proteins, Electrolytes, Water,Alcohol and Short chain Fatty acids o Fat primarily into the Central Lacteal of Lymphatic system  The Carbs, Proteins will be absorbed into the Capillary network  This then goes by means of the Hepatic vein to Liver  Liver processes and sends back into circulation to heart  Continues to circulate around to the body Slide 117 • Water soluble nutrients go into the Capillary network and in the blood stream • Large fats and Fat soluble Vitamins go in the Lymphatic system o Chylomicrons are Fat plus a Protein carrier so that it can be transported in a water-based medium such as blood Slide 118 • Arterial network- From Heart out the Left Ventricle it will pump blood up to the Brain and then down to the rest of the body including Liver • Capillary network is exchanges occur, and collection of blood then inferior and superior vena cava back to the heart • Right chamber of the Heart pumps out to the Lungs, and comes back to the LeftAtria and from there to the Left Ventricle and into main circulation Slide 119 • The Lymphatic System goes throughout the body and there are many One –way vessels • It is involved with ridding your body of noxious material, part of your Immune System • Dumps into the Subclavian vein • Once in the bloodstream, the material is taken to the Liver and Kidneys where it is filtered out, to be detoxified or removed • Note: Lipids coming in it bypasses the Liver at first, your Liver is your primary organ for processing the energy substrates to get them ready to be delivered to the rest of the body o Sometimes Glucose is stored as Glycogen Slide 120 • Lymphatic system is for most of the Lipids • Capillary network goes by means of the Hepatic vein to the Liver, then general circulation to the Heart and around the whole body Slide 121 • You also have the bacteria that is in your Large Intestine that is called the Flora, if on a lot of antibiotics this can be diminished and a consequence of that is a potential deficiency in Vitamin B12, K that are produced by the bacteria, and so you need to take supplements so that you can have sufficient amounts • You can influence the bacteria by taking in things called Probiotics and Prebiotics o Probiotics- are healthy bacterial colony, some will be degraded in the stomach but some make it through to the Large intestines o Prebiotics- are materials you take that pass into the Large Intestine and provide a positive growth medium for the bacteria  Like certain types of Fibre, so that facilitate • Digestion of Fibres and complex proteins will occur in the Large Intestine because of the fermentation and some Vitamin production occurs Slide 122 • GI tract is very sensitive to the environment and what you eat o If you are eating a lot of red meat in particular, and not much fruits/vegetables, and not much good bacteria the Colon environment may change to the point where the bacteria inside may become negative- deterioration of walls of intestine o There will be degradation of undesirable material, the HCl does that o Some of the bacteria if it is a Positive type will destroy some of the foreign matter that is in there, so that it doesn’t cause any damage to you • Health of Digestive system o You want a healthy supply of blood o Lifestyle factors is what you eat and what you do Chapter 4- The Carbohydrates: Sugars, Starches, and Fibres Slide 123 • Carbohydrates you will hear about them being called Sugars • Sugar is only one part of a category called Carbohydrates • Blood Glucose is the proper term not Blood Sugar • Sugars are simple one molecule or two molecule Disaccharides Slide 124 • Carbs are your primary energy source for just about every cell in the body, particularly for the RBC and Brain ( The Nervous System) • RBC are 100% energy from Glucose • Brain- most of it comes from Carbs, if you are in a deprived state like fasting or malnutrition- you can adapt your brain to about 50% provided by Carbs and the other half by Fat or Fat products o You cannot go 0% Carbs  If you have very low Blood Glucose not enough to support Brain activity, your Brain will start to depress  When Respiratory centre is depressed you go intoAcoma, and you can actually die from it  So you absolutely need Carbs in your diet to maintain Blood  Carbohydrate energy component is 4kcal/gm is what we use • The elements in Carbs is C, H, and O • One molecule is C 6 12 6 • Good sources include fruits, vegetables, and grains Slide 125 • Bonds for each element o H-1 o O-2 o N-3 o C-4 Slide 126 • Glucose is the most abundant Carb, and is used as a building block for other Carb molecules, and main energy substrate • Produced by plants through Photosynthesis Slide 127 • Water from the ground, CO2 from air, energy from the Sun- In the plant converts the Water and CO2 into Glucose and releases O2 into the air • Too much CO2 in the air is changing the atmosphere, Global warming is occurring from it, potential of more Ultra violet light coming in which can cause damage to skin o To reduce CO2 we need to have enough plants • Energy comes into plants and becomes energy source for animals and humans • Plants have the ability to fix Nitrogen with Hydrogen • N & H form anAmine group, this group formAminoAcids andAAare building blocks for Proteins in our body • Plants are important as energy substrates, replenishment of O2, and formingAmine groups for our Proteins Slide 128 • We have Simple Carbs which can be Monosaccharides like Glucose, Fructose and Galactose • Or Disaccharides which are two molecules linked like Lactose, Maltose, and Sucrose Slide 129 • Glucose is the most abundant in our body, in our diet • Fructose is the sweetest • Galactose does not exist in nature, it is a part of milk Slide 130 • Fructose is the sweetest of these because of its different shape it stimulate the sweet receptors on your tongue o What happens on your tongue is that you get a physical marrying of the receptor and the stimulus (the food)- the greater the marrying, the greater sweet taste • Difference between Glucose and Galactose is the position of the Hydroxyl group • Fructose and Galactose goes to our Liver to be converted into Glucose so that it can be used Slide 131 • When we want to either take long chains of Glucose apart like Starch, in order to digest and absorb we have to cleave it apart o We use Hydrolysis, Lysis means to break and requires water o In this example we have Hydrogen separated from Hydroxyl • The opposite can occur, if we want to put Glucose onto this chain o You consume carbs and get the Glucose molecule into the Liver and you want to add it to the Glycogen chain that is a process called Dehydration synthesis also known as Condensation o Condensation- you take the molecule and add it, remove water (dehydration), use an enzyme and then you have your long chain o These are things that go on all the time, not only with Carbs but also with Proteins separating amino acids and separating TG the Glycerol from the Fatty acids Slide 132 • Here is another example of Hydrolysis • Maltose which is a 2 Glucose molecule that is being separated by using water and an enzyme Slide 133 • To put them back together you remove the water and synthesize Slide 134 • Glucose is the main Monosaccharides in your body and foods, and is also found in every single Disaccharides • Maltose is made from 2 glucose and beer is made from it o Alot of Maltose becomes Starch • Glucose + Galactose= Lactose ( Milk sugar) • Glucose + Fructose= Sucrose Slide 135 • Complex Carbs- are also simple because they are long chains of Glucose molecules • There are different types but still just made up of Glucose • Also called Polysaccharides • Ex. Starch, Glycogen, most Fibres Slide 136 • Starch • Plants store Carbs as Starch o Grains, fruits, and vegetables have Starch • Some Starch in plants is not digestible and this is called Resistant Starch ( or Fibre) o We don’t have the enzyme to cleave apart the Glucose molecules o It will pass through us and have an effect on our GI tract mostly positive but sometimes negative Slide 137 • In our Muscle and Liver we store Carbs as Glycogen, sometimes called animal Starch but its Glycogen o We use this as an energy substrate during exercise and Glycogen in Liver will be used to maintain Blood Glucose levels o Minimal found in animals, degrades rapidly after death o Our source of Carbs is from plants Slide 138 • Dietary fibre is the non-digestible part of plants o Ex. Grains, rice, seeds, legumes, fruits • Functional Fibre is adding the non-digestible Carbs extracted from plants and added to food • Celluose, guar gum, pectin, psyllium are added to jelly and puddings Slide 139 • Two types of fibres Soluble and Insoluble • Soluble fibres- are found in fruits, oat bran mucilage- tend to form gels in our GI tracts o In the Intestines it delays the absorption of Glucose, this can be beneficial for diabetics whose concerned with the rapid rise of Glucose following consumption of a meal • Insoluble fibres attract water which helps to make Chyme softer o Full of water it expands the Small intestine, stimulates Peristalsis, stimulates mixing and the passage of food is sped up which helps prevent constipation • Fibre helps in digestion and absorption process- decrease transit time (processing quicker) • High Fibre diet is said to help decrease Colon cancer • In NAwe do not eat enough Fibre- we eat white bread, white pastas, white everything and not eating whole wheats Slide 140 • Skin of an apple is Cellulose, a fibre we cannot digest, Pectin is found inside which is Soluble fibre • Wheat has Bran layers ( insoluble) on the surface and a starchy part inside called Endosperm, the Germ has oils and most of the Vitamins • Back then we had stone wheels to grind it to make bread o Endosperm and Germ would fall through a screen to be used, the rest is dumped o Whole wheat as some of the Bran layers added back into it • Those who have low Fibre and low water retention will tend to have constipation • Diverticulitis- infection in the Small or Large intestine due to waste staying in there for a long time and causing inflammation to the walls • Sometimes gas stimulates muscles to contract irregularly, and intestines start to twist on itself, and you get impacted material inside that cant normally pass through and builds up- you can eventually have a rupture in there and then die • With lots of water and Fibre, material pass out regularly o Try to consume more fruits and vegetables and high fibre foods Slide 141 • Whole grains, and soluble fibres help with pass through • In terms of Heart disease some of the Soluble fibres found in things like Oats will bind with Bile o Bile is produced by the liver stored in your Gallbladder when you have Fat come into your GI tract, Bile is released to help break it down o Bile is made from Cholesterol o Normally Bile goes back to Liver and just keeps recycling o If Bile is bound to Fibres like Oat fibres then your Liver has to make more Bile, in order to make more Bile is needs Cholesterol- Cholesterol is taken from the Blood and reduces Blood Cholesterol levels particularly LDL o Bad Cholesterol like LDL is linked to Coronary Heart disease Slide 142 • Diabetes-high fibre foods will help to reduce Glucose elevation in the blood • GI health- high fibre foods and lots of fluids will help material pass through • Weight management- high fibre foods and whole grains are goods because you get more of a feeling of fullness, satiation o Adiet you can recommend for anyone trying to lose body fat is theApple diet o Right before a meal, eat one whole apple- satisfying, slows down GI tract, high fibre- then you won’t eat as much Slide 143 • There is a link between Low fibre and Cancer • There was a guy named… • ABritish scientist was looking at incidences in Colonic Cancer in NAcompared to other parts of the world likeAfrica where there was low incidences of Colonic cancer o Started to wonder whether if there was a dietary relationship o In NAwe were consuming high amounts of animal products and low amounts of fibre o In Africa they were consuming plants, vegetables, grains, fruit, and little meat o He would go around and collect stools and examine it, and found that those with high fibre diet had very regular bowel movements and bacterial colonies also exited- they had low incidences of Colonic cancer and Coronary heart disease Lecture 6- Jan.17 • Starch and Fibre can be really good in reducing Colon cancer because of the dilution effect and decrease in transit time • Many sources of dietary fibre contain Phytochemicals Slide 144 • Functional Foods • Are foods in which materials have been added to it o Ex. Orange juice doesn’t have calcium in it, but gets added in and is very good for people who don’t consume dairy products • Some functional foods are misleading like it was tested on animals but generalizes to humans or not proven o Some descriptions are enhance mood, promote relaxation and good karma Slide 145 • Phytochemicals are in many fruits and vegetables • Blueberries are good for you, they have Flavonoids which improves memory in animals • Flaxseed, the richest source of lignans, may prevent the spread of cancer o Need to grind or get flaxseed oil because it has a Bran coating • Chocolate has good antioxidants in it • Phytoestrogens of soybeans seem to starve cancer cells and inhibit tumour growth; it may also lower blood Cholesterol and protect cardiac arteries o Concern for women with Estrogen positive because these Phytoestrogens mimic Estrogen which increases Estrogen and may be a risk factor for those who have history of breast cancer • Oranges – inhibit cancer growth • Garlic lowers blood Cholesterol and protects against stomach cancer • Broccoli is also cancer fighting • These chemicals are called non- nutrient because they are not energy substrates, not vitamins and minerals but are still in foods and can be beneficial Slide 146 • You can end up with Excessive fibre • You end up with insufficient energy or nutrient needs o This occurs because you have decreased transit time so much that food is passing through you so rapidly that you don’t have time to digest and absorb the energy and vitamins • Bacteria in your Large intestines may produce gas and can contribute to diarrhea • Sometimes too much fibre can cause GI obstruction • Dietary goals are: Balance, Moderation, Variety Slide 147 • DRI (Dietary Reference Intakes for Carbs are 45-65% of energy requirement • RDA(Recommended DietaryAllowance)- 130g per day • Fibre recommendations are 12-14g per 1000kcals a day o In NAwe tend to not consume that much Fibre Slide 148 • Digestion of the Carbs and Fibre • Starch can get digested partially in the mouth with enzymeAmylase, even if you take a Starch blocker it will be digested in the Small intestines o No digestion of it in the Stomach because the HCl denatures theAmylase o Most of the Carbs will be digested in the Small intestine • Fibre will pass right through you but with some Fermentation in the Large intestine Slide 149 • SalivaryAmylase- enzyme that begins Carb digestion in the mouth and breaks down Starch to Maltose (PolysaccharideDisaccharide) Slide 150 • PancreaticAmylase- is released from the Pancreas and secreted into the Duodenum and Small intestine o Digests Starch into Maltose (PolysaccharideDisaccharide) o Disaccharide goes into the Small intestine Slide 151 • In the SInt we have specific enzymes that break down Disaccharides into Monosaccharide o Maltase will break Maltose into Glucose and Glucose o Sucrase will break Sucrose o Lactase will break Lactose • The Monosaccs are absorbed into the cells lining the SInt and then enter the bloodstream Slide 153 • Food into SInt o During digestion the Disaccs are cleaved into the individual Monosaccs o They go to the Liver through the Portal vein o In the Liver Fruct and Galact are converted into Gluc o Liver acts on Gluc to restock Liver Glycogen or put Gluc into the blood Slide 154 • Glycogen is store in Muscle and Liver • In Muscle it can be a rapid energy source, it breaks off because it is a highly branched Glucose molecule and then metabolize it to formATP o There is a limited amount of Gluc that we can use as an energy substrate, so we supplement with Fat o Limited amount of Glucose that can be stored in the muscle • In the Liver the Glycogen that is stored in there will be released into the blood as Glucose to maintain Blood Glucose levels Slide 155 • We don’t have the enzymes to break down some Carbs like Fibre • Bacteria in the Lint can ferment it and we can get up to 5% of energy from fibre o Insignificant amount so we don’t really count it as an energy source • Most Fibre is undigested and eliminated with feces o Fibres provide bulk which stimulates Peristalsis o Retains water which decreases negative effects of noxious materials, and loosens stools and this helps the process of elimination Slide 156 • You can have problems with your intestines, particularly the Colon by eating a lot of processed foods, low fibre • This material can condense and the bacteria and noxious material can cause effects on the walls of the Colon and end up forming structures called Diverticulum
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