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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 4020
Roger Kelton

What Are Lipids? • Lipids:–Diverse class of molecules that are insoluble in water Three types of lipids are found in foods: – (i)Triglycerides – (ii) Phospholipids – (iii)Sterols (i) Triglyceride (ii) Phospholipids (iii) Sterols 3 fatty acid + glycerol 2 fatty acid +glycerol -multiple rings of carbon backbone backbone + phosphate atoms -long chain -soluble in water -essential for cell membranes and hormones (i) Triglyceride 3 fatty acid + glycerol molecule (very short chain sugar molecule) -Make up almost 95% of fats in the body other 5% is phospholipids and sterols -Fatty acids ( long chains of carbon surrounded by H atoms) -Glycerol (3-carbon alcohol)  backbone of triglyceride Long chain of carbon , tend to range up to 16-24 in the most dominant type. -Ends of fatty acid (Methyl CH3) group Acid ending (COOH) Attach the fatty acid to the glycerol (process called DEHYDRATION SYNTHESIS)—TO MAKE triglyceride -same as when you converted glucose molecules and made them into g Most are EVEN NUMBERED CARBONS IN OUR BODY. (NO double bonds hence, called SATURATED). -FATTY ACIDS -will differ in length (short, medium, long) -shape - Level of saturation(instead of single bonds(saturated fat), there wil be ONE or more Double Bonds(unsaturated bonds)) Very occasionally, there is triple bond, Saturated Monosaturated Polyunsaturated Have hydrogen atoms lack H atoms at ONE lack H atoms at multiple surrounding every carbon carbon, have ONE carbons, have more than in the chain double bond ONE double bond Long-chain fatty acids Mono- and Poly fatty solid at room temp liquid at room temp (butter, lard) (oil,etc) Triglycerides will always have one of the combination of 1 saturated fat 1 monounsaturated fat 1 polyunsaturated Monosaturated Polyunsaturated SATURATED UNSATURATED -Stack together -Don’t stack as well, due to the double bonding -Very dense -less dense -Solid at room temp -Liquid at room temp -E.g butter, lard (animal origin) -Oil, (plant origin) Shape of Fatty Acid determines the Saturation of carbon chains and by type of double bond (CIS or TRANS) Cis Trans the chains are on the same side of the Trans fat is the common name for double bond, resulting in a kink. unsaturated fat (U-like formation) Mostly in unsaturated fatty acid the chains are on opposite sides of the double bond, and the chain is -Mostly found in vegetable oils, Plant straight. oils have cis unsaturated fatty acids (Linear formation) Trans fats may be monounsaturated or polyunsaturated but never saturated. -Also Mostly found in vegetable oils
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