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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 4020
Roger Kelton

Human NutritionCHAPTER 8 ENERGY BALANCEBODY COMPOSITION energy balanceinput vs output3500 calories1lb of FATpositive energy balanceconsume large amount of food expend low amount of energy weight gainnegative energy balance consume small amount of food expendlarge amount of energyweight lossequilibriumconsumptionexpenditure weight maintainedENERGY INhunger physiological response to nerve and chemical signals controlled by hypothalamussatiationthe feeling of satisfaction and fullness that occurs during a meal and halts eatingsatietythe feeling of fullness that occurs after a meal and inhibits eating until the next meal Satiety determines how much time passes between meals1Physiological Influences empty stomach gastric contractions2Sensory Influences thought sight smell sound taste of food3Cognitive influences others time of day availability of foodabundance 4Postingestive influencesnutrients in small intestine stomach stretch receptors5Postabsorptive influencesnutrients in the blood signal brain hunger develops RESTART to 1overriding hungersatiety environmental influences stress eating time of day sightsmellsustaining satiation protein most satiating nutrient low energy density foods most satiating high fibre foods most satiating high fat foods strong satiety signalsThe Hypothalamus control centres for eatingintegrates messages energy intake expenditure storagegastrointestinal hormonesENERGY OUT thermogenesisgeneration of heat used in physiology and nutrition studies as an index of how much energy the body is expending Total energy a body expends broken down into 3 main categories1 Basal Metabolism 23 of average energy a person expends in a day the energy needed to maintain life when a body is at complete digestive physicaland emotional restBasal metabolic rate BMRrate at which body expends energy for life sustaining activities Energy use for metabolism under specific conditions after 12 hour fast and restful sleep without any physical activity or emotional excitement in comfortable setting Usually expressed in kCalkgFactors weightthe more you weigh the more TOTAL energy you expend but amount of energy PER POUD may be lowerlean body tissue highest BMR in people who are growing and with considerable lean body tissueother highly active thyroid under stress fever being tall temperatureNegative effect malnutrition fastinggetting older slows BMR downResting metabolic rate RMRsimilar to BMR a measure of energy us of a person at rest in a comfortable setting but with less stringent criteria for food intake and physical activity Consequently RMR is usually HIGHER than BMR2Physical Activity voluntary movement of the skeletal muscles and support systems most variable and most changeable component of energy expenditureMuscle Mass the larger the more energy Body Weight the heavier the more energyActivityduration frequency intensity 3Food Consumption thermic effect of food acceleration of GI tract muscles speed up contraction secretion of digestive juicesproportional to food intakegenerally 10 of total intakehigher TEF with high protein foods than for high fat foodshigher for a meal eaten all at once rather than spread out over a couple hours4AdaptationAdaptive Thermogenesis adapt to dramatically changed circumstancesextra work done by body build tissue produce enzymes hormones extremely variable and specific to individualNOT included in calculating energy requirementsGainingLosing Fat Energy intake vs Energy Expendituregenetic FactorsChildhood weight behavioural factors societal factorsDefining Health Body Weight not appearance based subjective little in common with healthidealenough fat to support basic needs but not too much to incur health risksBMI Body Mass Indexweightkgorweightlbs x 7032 2height mheight inHealthy weight falls between185249UnderweightUNDER 185 Overweight 25299Obese30399Extreme Obesity 40 and OVERreflects HEIGHT and WEIGHTNOT body compositionNOT APPROPRIATE for high muscle mass under 18 years old pregnant or nursing over 65 certain racialethnic groups blacks have higher bone density and protein than whitesOBESITY Class 1 Obesity BMI 30349Class 2ObesityBMI 35 399 Class ObesityBMI OVER 40
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