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Nutrition MIDTERM REVIEW.docx

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York University
Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 4020
Roger Kelton

Nutrition MIDTERM REVIEWCHAPTER 1 AN OVERVIEW OF NUTRITION6 classesof nutrientsCarbohydrates Lipids fats ProteinsMACROS Water Vitamins MineralsBody composition 60 water 1321 fat males2331 females carbs protein vitamin minerals and other constituents make up remaindersimplest nutrient are mineralsminerals and water are inorganic do NOT contain carbonother 4 classes are organic contain carbonEssential nutrientsbody makes insufficient quantities to meet needs therefore need to obtain these nutrients through foodEnergyyielding nutrients carbohydrates fat protein1 gram of carbohydrate 4kcal of energy1 gram of protein 4kcal of energy1 gram of fat 9kcal of energy THEREFORE fat has a greater energy density than carbs and protein1 gram of alcohol 7kcal of energyEnergy is created when bonds between nutrients atoms break releasing energyMetabolism process by which nutrients are broken down to yield energy or used to make body structuresVitamins 13 vitamins organic do not provide energy but facilitate the release of energy from carbohydrate fat and protein and participate in numerous other activities throughout the bodyWater solubleC and8 B vitaminsFat Soluble ADEKMinerals 16 minerals are essential in human nutrition do NOT yield energyWater metabolic reaction purposes supplies medium for transportation of vital materialsNutritional Genomics the science of how nutrients affect the activities of genes and how genes affect the interactions between diet and diseaseDietary Reference Intakes DRIs set of standards that define the amounts of energy nutrients other dietary components and physical activity that best support health recommendationsEstimated Average Requirements EAR requirement for a nutrient how much is needed in the diet an average which really only serves 50 of the populationRecommended Daily Allowance DRA set higher to ensure that half the population doesnt acquire any deficienciesAdequate intake AI if theres insufficient data to create an EAR then committee creates an AI based more on judgment expected to exceed average requirementsTolerable Upper Intake Levels UL individual tolerances for high doses of nutrients vary and somewhere above the recommended intake is a point beyond which a nutrient is likely to become toxicEstimated Energy Requirement EER the recommended dietary energy intake kcalday that will maintain energy balance in a person who has a healthy body weightAcceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges AMDRdiet composition reducing risk of chronic diseases4565carbohydrate kcal2035 fat kcal1035 protein kcalmalnutrition excess or deficiency over time of nutrientsundernutrition deficiency of energyovernutrition excess energy related to chronic diseases diabetes heart diseaseAssessment of Individuals1HISTORICAL INFORMATIONhealth status socioeconomic drug use diet2ANTHROPOMETRIC MEASUREMENTSweight heightBMI3PHYSICAL EXAMINATION skin eyes hair fingernails clues for lab tests4LABORATORY TESTS blood urine samples confirm suspicionsPrimary Deficiency lacking in a persons dietSecondary Deficiency body doesnt absorb enough excretes too much or inefficient useSubclinical Deficiency covert hidden outward signs not apparent body using up store before stores become exhaustedHealthy People program identifies the nations health priorities and guides policies that promote health and prevent diseaseCHAPTER 2PLANNING A HEALTHY DIETAdequacy providing all the essential nutrients fiber and energy in amounts sufficient to maintain healthBalance consuming enough but not too much of each foodexample calcium and iron taken togetherKcalorie control is to select foods of higher nutrient density the more nutrients and less calories the more denseModeration eating such foods only on occasion and regularly selecting low solid fats and added sugarsVariety improves adequacy prevents eating excess of one foodharm never boringfood group plans5 food groups fruits vegetables legumes and meat grains dairyDiscretionary kcalorie allowance the remaining calories in a persons energy allowance after consuming enough nutrientdense foods to meet all nutrient needs for a dayMyPyramid educational tool to illustrate the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the USDA Food Guide Based on height weight age gender and activity level Pregnancy and Vegetarian as wellHealthy Eating Index used to measure how well a diet meets the recommendations of MyPyramid and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Quantities per 1000kcals Higher intakes
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