Relaxation notes Final.docx

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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 4420
Mark Cummings

Relaxation notes Final 4/11/2012 9:57:00 AM Chapter 2 Immune System Controlled by pituitary gland Comprised of: WBC, platelets Lymphatic system Spleen Thymus gland Bone marrow Lymph has valves but no venous pressure so its based on muscle movement Non-specific defense mechanisms prevents penetration of its external shield Thickening of skin Gastric acidity Sweeping movement of cilia Sneezing/coughing Specific defense Bone marrow produced B-lymphocytes o B-lymphocytes produce: Immunoglobins, antibodies o T-lymphocites are produced in bone marrow but develop in the thymus Thymus gland secretes hormones that influence lymphocyte production o Larger in children Spleen serves as blood bank o Acts as a large lymph node; filtering lymphatic fluid, hosting lymphocytes and phagocytes Lymphatic system vessels that transport lymph fluid o Vessels lead to lymph nodes/glands o Lymph nodes produce large amounts of lymphocytes & phagocytes Cell types & functions: Macrophage o Digest antigens, dispose of dying and damaged cells o Remove inorganic particles T Lymphocyte o Tumor killing activity o Recognize infected cell o Modulate antibody production by B Lymph B Lymphocyte o Produce antibodies that dissolve pathogens or coat them for easier identification by macrophage Natural Killer Cells o Can seek and destroy tumor cells with or without additional activation Suppressor T Cells o Tells other cells to stop the immune response once antigens are destroyed How to control immune system? Nerve fibers from the brain o Directly influence thymus & spleen (neural) Hormones o Brain stimulates pituitary gland to make hormones o Regulate immune cell function Neuropeptides o Travel in blood and change activity of other cells in the process of combating infection no one system or organ controls immune system If macrophage cannot eliminate antigen immunological functioning: i. Identification of antigens scouting 1. Macrophage digest antigens 2. Tells other of invaders ii. Amplification of defenses defense strategy 1. Macrophage secrete interleukin-1 that activate helper T 2. Helper T goes to spleen and lymph nodes to secrete interleukin-2 which stimulates T & B cells to multiply 3. Natural Killer T cells multiply iii. Attack offensive strategy 1. Macrophage attack antigens 2. T & B identify or attack iv. Return to normal operation game over 1. Macrophage tell suppressor cells to shut down T & B when antigens are destroyed 2. Cells retain memory of invaders for future Disregulation: Overactivity o Factor in autoimmune disorders such as arthritis o Causes allergies o Allergies Immune system over-reacts o Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis - Chronic inflammatory disorder Osteoarthritis from injuries or wear and tear; with or without immune involvement Underactivity or Immunodeficiency o Glucocorticoid suppress immune system; influence helper T o Decreases the immune cells activity o Flu, Colds, Infections o Cancer Carcinogenic agents, genetic predisposition, lifestyle factors Eysenck found relationship between distress & cancer Acute distress: increase in pre-existing cancer growth Chronic distress: inoculation effect that reduced tumor growth LSR and immune disregulation Can prevent distress induced suppression of immune system Imagery for remission and elimination of cancer Psychological Concepts: Law of initial values (LIV) physiological response depends on the initial level of the system; the higher the level, the smaller the increase LIV is true for muscles, vascular tone, respiratory system but NOT for skin conductance ceiling and floor effects: one extreme of the system cannot be compared with an equal change in another part of the system lability is the tendency of a person to respond to events reactivity is the degree to which they respond
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