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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 4520
Paul Dennis

Chapter 10, Teamwork -Ivan Arreguin analyzed wars in the last 200 years and found that: One side was at least 10x more powerful than the other The stronger side won 71% of the time When the underdog won, it was only because they substituted effort for ability as a cohesive group -Cohesiveness= formula for success in all forms of human endeavour - social loafing= trusting your partner to do the job, putting in less effort than if you were alone -what makes a team? parents, athletes coaches, and support staff -Evolution of a team= collection of individuals who identify form through: shared sense of purpose structured patterns of behaviour Interaction Communication -Five Features of Teams (Forsyth, 2006,)  diagnostic framework to see what has gone wrong 1. Interaction – communication 2. Structure – roles and captains 3. Cohesion: Task cohesion- playing together and bringing the best out of each other Social Cohesion- respect, exclusiveness, tightness, away from the game 4. Goals – well defined short and long term goals, all agree and believe in them 5. Identity – does the team have an identity and is it reinforced by key players / how? -you can still win if there is no cohesion! -Team cohesion dynamic process of a group to stick together and remain united in the pursuit of goals and objectives:  Task cohesion= working together to achieve an identifiable goal -higher task cohesion is associated with perceived psychological momentum -higher levels of it= increased efficacy, more confidence, and more efficiency -more important than social cohesion  Social cohesion= how much members like each-other -more important for females -influenced by perceptions of: individual attraction (how much you like playing for the team), and group integration (how well do you think the team functions) -strength of perceptions determines why teams stick together - predicts future involvement in sport -can be measured by GEQ -collective individualism= used in china VS. individual ambition= used in north America -Correlates of cohesion: 1. Environmental-> group size and competition level are negative correlates 2. leadership-> coaching techniques, tell weak players they can do it 3. team-> highly successful teams are more cohesive 4. personal->individual satisfaction= more cohesion -success breeds cohesion! Cohesion-performance relationships are strongest when it is measured as task than social Cohesion-performance relationships are stronger when performance is defined as behaviour rather than outcome -Interactive Cohesion is STRONGER than coactive cohesion -Cohesion + 3 Steps = Success 1. Team goals must be defined clearly- players taking ownership and providing input to what goal is 2. Player expectations must be high –i.e. “I want 12 assists this game” 3. Focus on Task-related issues i.e.” this guy stole my girlfriend 2 days before the game!” -How to Build Cohesion? Through team building activites and strategies: Direct Intervention-> sport psychologist takes control over team can cause issues of respect “ you don’t look like an athlete, why should I listen to you” Indirect Intervention- the sport psychologist teaches coaches how to conduct the team building session -Coaches role ->nurturing and guiding athletes to see the value of creating a cohesive team – make everyone feel a sense of ownership and commitment -factors that increase tension: negative communication (which reduces self esteem), and focusing on what is wrong than on what’s right -ways to create team cohesion: improve communications, respect and celebrate differences, use inclusive process in developing team goals, create vision of the team as greater than any individual, have a positive feedback environment, avoid favouritism, behave respectfully to each-other, give the athlete unconditional support, and have clear role clarifications -building a great team: MAPS -MISSION-> the philosophy that guides the team, values, and commitment to excellence -it isn’t about the scoring, beating the competition, or winning -need to set team goals, learn and value individuals’ needs, establish trust to surrender me for we -trust= willingness to be vulnerable on the basis of positive expectations of other, based on: Perceived ability->to accomplish a certain task Perceived integrity-> commitment to principles Perceived benovelance-> how much the other cares for you E Pluribus Unum- “From many come ONE” Omnia Paratus-“ prepared for all things” - dark side of team cohesion-> distrust and disbelief (ie. Player initiation) There is no positive relationship between initiation activities and cohesion (measured by GEQ) Initiation acts are detrimental, it does NOT enhance team cohesion -ASSESSMENT-> identify team strengths and challenges -for amateur teams you can do team profiling, in 6 steps, you identify “ideal team” and try to be more like them -get player feedback on: Strengths-> good goaltending Threats->not winning if we get into the penalty box, lose focus and attention Possibilities->we will win if we maintain discipline, we’ll win if we support one another Weaknesses-> “our shifts are too long”, “we lack discipline”->too much complaining -PLAN-> taking steps to improve individual and team efforts, “morale boosters” -need to increase players’ control and involvement with the team -to transform individuals into a team we need to set goal setting strategies using the interpersonal- relations approach-> which focuses on understanding personal and team values and how they affect cohesion -Use qualitative & quantitative assessment -Team goal setting strategies: strategies to improve team function -SYSTEMATIC EVALUATION: Providing constructive feedback  Trust breeds trust  Good communication skills -Coaches cannot use trickery to team building- athletes lose trust -you can do everything right, but there are still no guarantees -Performance= the execution of an action, something accomplished, the ability to perform -whitmore defines it as “going beyond what’s expected, setting one’s own highest standards, and surpassing what others demand or expect -performance is one’s expression of own potential -mental skills increase performance -extrinsic reward->fame and fortune -intrinsic reward->self-identity, self-esteem, and peak performace -sport is an opportunity for self-development -most frequent question from coaches: how do I get my athlete to motivate themselves? -we think that threats will produce sustainable optimum performance, but thats not true -we need to overcome inner blocks, have psychological optimism, focus on future possibilities and not past mistakes -3 components to performance: skill level, physical conditioning, and psychological component -psych component: need to list all the reasons why you played poorly, like trash talk, intimidation, coach, low confidence -with the right mindset, the impossible becomes a possibility -sources of stress for athletes: fear of failure, fear of negative social evaluation, fear of injury, coaching, bad call from official, importance of event, weak teammates, poor performance in practice -george Armstrong: “prepare for the moment, don’t wait for the moment to prepare -we need to think less to perform better -prepare to strengthen-> confidence, mental toughness, coping with pressure Chapter 7, Focus under pressure - we can become motivated by the fear of failure Ex. Jeremy Wootherspoon, who wasn’t afraid of the result, but rather of people’s judgements -need to become motivated to succeed -learning to cope in stressful situations occurs primarily during childhood and adolescent years -having the coping skills is a definite advantage -stress occurs when we view ourselves as incapable of coping with the situation and there are potentially harmful consequences -stress and young athletes: fear and anxiety( most frequent emotions) If arousal is too high it interferes with performance Difficulty concentrating Increased risk of injury Threat to their self-esteem -coaches often tell at young athletes-> WRONG way to discipline -children with high anxiety: sensitive to fear of failure and of negative social evaluation worry more often about making mistakes, and not playing well and losing more likely to develop depression later in life -inadvertently increased anxiety and arousal can occur by: too much teaching before game “we have to win this game” Must win -> increased arousal -> muscle tension -> decision making using criticism to motivate reminding the player who’s watching -coaching youth sports: mastery success is defined in terms of self-improvement, effort and persistence Children with supportive coaches enjoy the experience and are less anxious Children who fear failure are
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