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Sports Psych Handbook notes test 1.docx

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Kinesiology & Health Science
KINE 4520
Paul Dennis

Sports Psych Handbook 2/4/2013 6:11:00 PM Chapter 10 – teamwork:  Good teams vs. Great teams:  Team dynamics is key in motivating and supporting athletes  A team is more than just a group  It is a coordinated ensemble that cooperates to achieve a common goal that overrides individual achievement  Individual effort is needed for teamwork but it is not enough  Team members include the athletes, coaches, and other professionals  Individual team sport/coacting teams – sports that a cumulative performance of individual athlete determines team success; ex. Swimming, golf, track  Building team cohesion can have a strong effect even in coacting teams  Dynamics of the team are effected by individual athlete behaviour in terms of leadership, attitude, and performance  Team Development:  A team first begins as just a collection of individuals  After continuous association a collective identity begins to form  Characterized by a shared sense of purpose and structured patterns of behaviour, interaction, and communication  The idea of a team has changed; it is now characterized by:  High level of task interdependence  A perceived common fate  Consensus that the group goal has precedence over individual goals  Shared belief that the group output is more than the sum of individual parts  Each team is unique  Estabrooks et al. steps of transforming individuals into a team:  Team goal setting strategies o Strategies to improve team function and performance o Set up time, timing an format of intervention o Educational lectures/seminars/workshops to outline principles of individual and team interventions and their value to team success o Group sessions to build team cohesion and communication by identifying, discussing, and achieving consensus on the relationship of individual and their goals o Implementing follow up sessions that address performance barriers identified by the team o Feedback process to evaluate effectiveness of intervention and develop further intervention strategies  Interpersonal-relations approach o Focus is on understanding personal and team values and their affect on team cohesion o Identify and develop effective strategies to improve mutual respect and communication between team members o Athletes and coaches identify, describe, and discuss at least 3 important personal goals o Team members identify, describe and discuss 5 or 6 major roles that take time and energy to fulfill o Discussions of how team success will be determined & how this is related to team values o Discuss team’s strengths and challenges with focus on strategies to facilitate attainment of team values o Group meetings with coaches to identify their values and life roles o Follow up meetings between coaches and athletes to monitor, discuss, and adjust team building activities  Team sessions should include both goal setting and clarification of values  It is also important to determine who should direct team development activities  Each team is different and so there is not one right answer Team Goals  Setting goals is essential for team building  Goal setting is more complicated than it appears  Goal setting improves individual and team performances  In youth sports, parents are important participants as well  Parents provide social, economic, and personal support  Cohesiveness is also a powerful and equally important for coacting and interactive teams Team Cohesiveness  Starting point for building cohesiveness is building on a team vision  Cohesion – a dynamic process that is reflected in the tendency for a group to stick together and remain united in the pursuit of its instrumental objectives or for satisfaction of member affective needs  Team gets the job done and members feel supported and appreciated for their efforts  Ways to create team cohesion:  improve communication  respect differences  use inclusive process in developing team goals  recognize outstanding role behaviour in the service of team performance  create a vision of a team as greater than individual  establish positive feedback environment climate to maximize learning  encourage fun activities outside routine practice drills  set example of giving self to team efforts and self sacrifice  establish clear expectations regarding roles, hold everyone accountable, and know when to be flexible  teach intellectual, emotional, and spiritual aspects of the sport in addition to the physical and behavioral components  role expectation: clarify responsibility  role conception: what an individual thinks their job is and how they learned to do it  role acceptance: what they are willing to do and extent of their acceptance of how others see their roles on the team  role behaviour: what athlete/coach says and does role efficacy: how effective team members see other athletes and coaches in their roles on the team Effective Coaches and Their Winning Teams  coaches and their effectiveness are the most important factors in team development  the way coaches act influences individual and team performance  behavious that lead to positive player outcome: o high frequency of training with high support o democratic leadership that fosters autonomy rather than rigid control o establishing team climate of mastery or learning rather than only performance orientation o high frequency of positive, supportive, and information based feedback to athletes  “Praise is more valuable than blame” coach Bill Walsh Cooperation, Competition, and Conflict in Teams  Coaches and other sport professionals often over emphasize the competitive nature of sport  excessive focus on winning can be counterproductive to skill development and teamwork  cooperation and competitiveness are not mutually exclusive alternatives that a coach must choose between  combining the two concepts is ideal  development of internal rather than only external competitive motivation is more useful in improving and mastering skills at a high level  children should also learn cooperative skills and cooperate play  if they are only taught to cooperate their success may be limited  managing relationship tension is important  successful teams still have conflict but they can manage it better Building a Great Team  MAPS  Mission: helps guide specific process or outcome goals; goals can be long term or short  Assessment: identify strengths and challenges; assessment can help achieve goals  Plan: steps to improve; should have high degree of consensus  Systematic evaluation: review of the entire “road map”  Create a Mission: o A clear mission allows the team to formulate specific goals and strategic objectives o Sometimes coming up with a mission for a team is hard as everyone has their own ideas o Using a sport psychology consultant as a facilitator is ideal to run a workshop format with the team  Regularly Assess Team Qualities and Responsibilities: o Regular assessment is key part creating excellence o Discuss value individual differences can lead to greater appreciation of diversity  Creating a Motivational Action Plan: o Behaviour change is not easy and so commitment is key in improving individual
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