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LING 1000 book notes for quiz 1.docx

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LING 1000
Susan Ehrlich

LING 1000 book notes 9/9/2012 5:59:00 PM Chapter 1: o Possession of language distinguishes humans from other animals o To know a language you have the capacity to produce sounds that signify certain meanings and to understand or interpret the sounds produced by others o Knowing a language is knowing how to relate sounds and meanings o Form: phonological representation of a word (sound) o Sound symbolism: words that their pronunciation suggests their meaning (ex. Hiss) o Onomatopoeic: sounds of the words supposedly imitate the sounds of nature (ex. Cockadoodledoo) o Knowing a language means being able to produce new sentences never spoken before and to understand sentences never heard before o Creative aspect: o Knowledge of a language makes it possible to understand and produce new sentences o Knowledge of language determines which strings of words are sentenced and which are not o Linguistic competence: what you know o Linguistic performance: how you use the knowledge in speech and comprehension o Linguistic system: the sounds, structures, meanings, words, and rules for putting them together o Descriptive grammar: what we actually say o Mental grammar: internalized grammar that a descriptive grammar attempts to model o Perscriptive grammar: certain rules that are arbitrary o Gloss: giving the student the parallel word in their native language o Phonology: sound system o Semantics: meaning system o Morphology: rule of word formation o Syntax: rules of sentence forming o Lexicon: vocabulary dictionary o Monogenetic theory of language origin Chapter 2 o To learn a word you must learn the meaning and sound o Homophone: different words with the same sounds but different meaning (bear and bare) o Orthography: spelling o Open class words: class of lexical content words; a category of words that commonly adds new words. Eg: nouns, verbs o Closed class words: a category that rarely has new words added to it. Eg. Preposition, conjunctions o Morpheme: smallest unit of language that carries info about a meaning  Free morphemes: can stand on their own (eg. Boy, desire, woman)  Bound morphemes: must attach to other morphemes (eg. –ly, non-) o Affix: bound morpheme that attach to stem or root; meaning is not as clear as the root  Prefixes  Suffixes  Infixes o Root: morpheme that cannot be analyzed into smaller parts o Bound roots: don’t have a clearly identifiable meaning; often only combine with a limited number of morphemes o Stem: what an affix attaches to; can be a root, or a root + affix o Derivational morphemes: bound morphemes; when added to a root/stem a new word with a new meaning is derived o Hierarchical structure of words: groupings of morphemes in words; depicted in tree diagrams o Rule of Productivity: some rules are productive, meaning that they can be used freely to form new words from the list of free and bound morphemes o Inflectional morphemes: bound grammatical morpheme that is affixed to a word according to rules of syntax  They never change the syntactic category of the words they attach to o Content words: have meaning as independent words (nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs); are an open class of words o Function words: cannot be easily defined as independent words, but rather serve to indicate some grammatical function in a phrase or sentence (prepositions, conjunctions, articles); closed class of words o Grammatical Categor
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