Ling 110 Fall 2013
STUDENTS’ QUESTIONS BEFORE THE FINAL EXAM
(1) Can we use the M-W dictionary during the Final exam?
No dictionaries during the Final exam. You do not need the dictionary.
(2)I have another question.
The question is: Con+pet+e+nt(e)+ia, why there is no MVW? After root vowel "e"
there is a consonant and a vowel, so the pet supposed to change to pit.
Is this correct?
You are right but is there such a word as compitence? I do not think it exists. It's a
real word not a fabricated one (no options). It means it is the same case as
segregate (it's not segrigate). It means it is a new one : no change (no MVW).
(3)For the prefix red-,
What would be the rules and morphological structure for this word: Retard
I'm asking because I'm unclear whether to include cons. del. rule when red-
Red- sed- prod- Consonant deletion if the root begins with a consonant
(4) In the review: final exam, do we have the same questions like question2 and 3
in the final? If yes, how to do this kind of questions?
Sections 2 and 3 of the Final exam review with not be covered in the Final exam.
As I mentioned to all of you #2 and 3 of the Final exam review will not be part of
the Final exam but they are helpful on the preparation stage for the section 1 of
Review the Assignment 1 samples and the original Assignment 1 + Midterm
Samples and the original Midterm itself +Assignment 2 sample and the original
Assignment 2 + Final Exam Review + textbook chapters + lecture notes + your
(5) About part 9 of the Final Exam Review, we need to define which kind of
changes have been occured in the words 2
I always confused about "consonant deletion VS. consonant assimilation +
cluster simplication" .
Using "abnormal" as an example, in my mind ,there are two kind of possibilities
(i) Consonant Deletion : Abs + normal -> Abnormal
It’s not a correct one. A correct one is the following: abs+norm+al -> abz Cons
Assim - > ab Consonant Simplification (one out three consonants is deleted)
(6) I am still unsure how to tell the difference between a stem and a root. Can you
give me some hints on how.
Suf or pref are attached to the STEM (root+ Vowel thematic). Analyze examples
from samples (Midterm + Final Review)
(7) Are these 4 break downs of the words right?
- opponent ob+pos+n+e+nt
(8) For the word "dimension", is there a cluster of rules ( degemination
triggered by epenthesis)??
dis+ment+e+t+ion It's metathesis
dis+ment+t+ion (e/v deletion)
dis+ment+ss+ion (assimilation) (t+ss is not correct)tt>ss Assibilation
dis+ment+s+ion ss>s (degemination)
There will be NO Cl. of rules
(9) Can you explain why double 'ss' hint there is a prefix?
Not only 'ss', but 'll', 'rr', 'mm', 'cc' , etc. on the border between the
pref and the root, because the root doesn't begin with two identical
(10) In question7,a,why Greg doesnt change into grig?
sed+ greg+aa+t(e) -> segregate It is a real word borrowed from Latin but it is a
new one and it doesn't follow the fossilized rule. It means: NO CHANGE
(11) I have a question about contraction in Latin. The morphological analysis of
word "version" is: vision= viid+e+t+ion; 1. E or Vowel Deletion, 2. Consonant 3
Assimilation, 3. Assibilation, 4. Degemination. Does it have the rule Contraction
here because ii>i. The reason I suppose this way is that as you said, Contraction in
Latin means two identical vowels contract to one. So, I don't know what is going
on here. Please give me your solution.
vision viid +e+t+ion
ii is a tense vowel but not a combination of "two identical vowels" in the root. A
correct example for contraction: ambition: ambi+i+t+ion (contraction)
(12) for the word "infringe",is there an assibilation in "ge"?
(13) for the question In+preg+n+(e)ous, e is supposed to changed to i? Is this
because "ng" is considered as one " cons. sound" in here?
If so, are there any other combinations like that which I have to know?
Ng and gn
(14)Why for example, 'prodlingity: prod+dleg+n+ity' why not 'prod+leg+n+ity'?
d in prod- should be deleted if the root begins with a consonant.
(15) Can u please explain to me which rules are used in the word : perplexity ?
1. E or v. del
2 tt>ss Assib
3. Degemin. ss>s
(16) To make "hospital" to be "hotel", we first delete the "i" (hosptal), the
rule is syncope then because "spt" are 3 consonants, we use cluster simplification
to delete a consonant "p" (hostal) after that, we delete the "s" (hotel), the rule is "S
DELETION" is that correct ??
(17) for "contingent" (the textbook pp 218)we can write
a, con+teg+... MVW 4
b, con+teng+e+nt Metathesis
c, con+te_g+e+nt assimi ----(sorry, i cannot type the "ng")
I am not sure the rule d, eng > ing, is that MVW too? or other rule?
I think you missed some classes + didn't pay attention to the sample of the
(18) for rule V1+V2>V2. eg: meta+eor> meteor, is this vowel deletion or
It's vowel deletion. There is a general rule: if the root begins with a vowel
or 'h' the last vowel of the prefix is deleted (vowel deletion). Contraction
in Latin : ONLY when two IDENTICAL vowels contract to one (ambi+i+t+ion)!!!!
(19) for traduce, it is trans+duce--> tranz+duce--> traz+duce-->traduce
would there be two consonant deletions?
Cons Assim., Cl. simpl. Cons Deletion
(20) Another question is in Greek there is a rule which is U+V>v+V. Does it only
apply in the prefix eu-or somewhere else, since for question 24, giving the
etymological structure of enduval, my question is endo+uu+al.
It's a mistake. Only 'eu-' ( a Greek prefix) is the subject of this change in Greek.
(21) How come there is MVW in "combringible" (con+brag+n+ii+bil(e)) after
metathesis, but not for "frangible" (frag+n+ii+ble).
There is no prefix in frangible. It means NO MVW.
(22) I have a couple of questions here. 5
I am wondering for the MVW, you said root a>e, when root "a" is followed by
two consonants, what about for the word inception? Its original form is
in+cap+e+t+ion,, the a>e when it is followed only by one consonant "p".
'Inception' there are two consonants after the root vowel and there is a pref.
Perfect conditions for MVW (it's not relevant whether one cons is part of the root
or part of the suf.). Do not forget about Assibilation (ce)
(23) also, for the vocalization, in class, you gave an example of saint, this word's
original form is sanct, and then it vocalized to sanyt; however, could not find any
vocalization in here when pronouncing it.
c >y (Cons > Vowel). ‘y’ is a vowel if it is not the first letter of any word
(24) Moreover,for the word foliage, why the rule is cluster simplification and
methathesis. Futhermore, for the word humility,, what is its etymological
structures? amd what is the etymological structure for the word dyslectic,
is there a MVW for the root log to leg?
It's ablaut ( o >e is not MVW, MVW: only a>e, a>i , e > i)
(25) The last question is for the word elegance, I am wondering why there is no
cons. Deletion but two cons. assimilation? These questions are actually from your
lecture notes, I am unable to find the solution for them.
ex + l
ecz Cons Assim
egz Cons Assim
ez Cl simpl
e Cons deletion
(26) Procedure --> Prod+ced+ure
Why is there assibilation?
'd' in spelling, sibilant in pronunciation [dg]
(27) could you explain for me for the kind of changes words like superposition or
apportion, why is the change assibilation? I thought assibilation only occur when
't in spelling , but 'sh' in pronunciation 6
The same in 'action'
(28) But if the root is fabricated (not real for example), couldn't one interpret it any way they please? The
prefix ex and the suffix al can be found in Latin words, right? Perhaps I wanted to apply Latin rules to the
Even fabricated roots have some hints of the origin. I hope you haven't forgotten it. It's
important for the Final exam
In this case, the combination of 'th' sends you 'a message' : it's from Greek or English
native but not from Latin.
(29) Can you explain the "Dissimilation" rule for Latin (and anything else it
applies to)? (The textbook does not explain it clearly for Latin).
after l > ar but not al (stellar) stell + al -> stellar
(30) I understand how, when 2 consonants follow the root vowel, "a" changes to e,
as in the example fac+e+t becomes fect in defect, 2 consonants followed "a" so it
changed to e. But I don't understand what the rule is to make "a" change to i, or to
make e change to i.
In an example like corrigible, con+reg+i+ble, what is the trigger to make reg
become rig? And what triggers fac to become fic in deficient when it is defect as
There is a cons. + a vowel after the root vowel
a>i /CV ; e>i/CV; a>e /CC.
(31) Any tips concerning the origin of word (fr. Latin , Greek, French or Native
I mentioned many tips during my lectures: e.g.: different rules (Greek, Latinate,
French, English), some specific pref. and suf. for each l-ge, some specific
consonant combinations, specific rules for different partitions (Latin, Greek,
French), knowledge of the rules, knowledge of the syst. Cons. cor. (cognates),
(32) for the example part of Consonant deletion, we have
"promise=prod+mitt+e+t", is it a typo? cz in the textbook i can only find a
root of "mit". 7
The root is mit/mitt
"mitt-" in promise ('tt' -two consonants after the root vowel trigger Degemination,
but "mit-" in permission or mission (no Degemination)
(33) In this example: ambi-ag-u(ous)
to create ambiguous the a is deleted right? and it's vowel deletion... I
thought it may have been medial vowel weakening but it doesn't fit the rule.
MVW a>i , ii>i Contraction
(34) And, are there any specific clues as how to distinguish if a word is French?
Or should we just learn this by reviewing the rules of the 'French invasion’?'
There are many hints within the structure of each French word. There are specific
rules, names for different types of meat for cooking, terms of legal system,
government, military terms, etc...
(35) Is , we need write as bil(e). what about able? how to write this one?
If the word is a stem derivative (portable or audible ) then aa+bil(e)
If the word is a a PPP derivative (corruptible) then –ible or -able
(36) I still don't understand how the rules work for the Germanic consonant shift...
I understand that p in Greek corresponds to p in Latin and f in English but I DO
NOT understand why mead-(greek-amethyst) the answer is dh-d and not th-t or
bear-(Latinate: lucifer) and the answer is bh-b and not f-b.. please clarify...
The split happened not from Latin to Germanic, not from Greek to Germanic, but
from Proto-Indo-European l-ge to Germanic. You are supposed to compare the
consonants in I-E and English but not Latin/Greek and English!!!
(37) For the word e.g.: irricture why is not in+rag+e+t+ure and is rig/ric?
Because a>i/CV but not /CC
If you had 'irrecture' then it's possible to have options: rag/reg/rec/reg, but if you
have irricture there are no other options.
(38) I don't understand the following: 8
discredit dis+cred+ ee+t
How do you know there are two I (tense vowel ‘I’) or two e (tense vowel ‘e’ in the
structure of the word? Is there any way to find out? Assignment 2 ( I have the
access to the dictionary)
division: You are supposed to know the root , but even if you don't remember,
you can infer the shape of the root thanks to the 's' sitting in the structure of the
word: One of the three conditions for Degemination is a tense root vowel. It’s the
discredit: open the dictionary and you will find the Latin Infinitive: credeere ('e'
is a tense thematic vowel which changes to i when ‘t’ is attached).
(39) I saw the file u sent shows that the word "promise" is structured
into"prod+mitt+e+t"?I think it should be "prod+mit+e+t?" 'Coz i checked the
root index, it does show "mit" instead of "mitt". Could u explain it for me?
I mentioned it many times that this root has two possible options: mit, mitt
(check the dictionary)
(40) Is Medial Vowel Weakening limited to Latin?
Yes, it is.
(41) On the final sample, Q4, (c) habit, the answer is the root is
"hab-", but I don't know why it is not "haab" because "a" is always tense.
You mixed thematic vowel aa which is all the time tense and a root vowel which
can be tense or short.
(42) In your notes, there is an example on cluster simpilification,
"systolic", you write as
syn+stel+ic->sys+stel+ic. Here I don't know why you change "n" to "s", is
there any other rule that I should mention, I think it just cluster simp. of
First Cons. assim. because n is a voiced cons. and 's' is a voiceless one
(43) Sometimes I cannot distinguish between stressed and unstressed 9
vowels, I look at the CC, and it says VCVCV->VCCV, which delete the second
vowel, but if there is more than 3 vowels in the word, how can I do?
The position of the stress is important.
(44) Just make sure that we can take dictionary in the final, but if
I find every word on the dictionary for sample final part 2 and 3, is it time
wasting. But if I don't use the dictionary, I really don't know what's the
real word that they are cognate because I try just cognate each letter won't
get the real word. So I don't know how can I do?
No dictionaries at the Final exam. The cognates will be chosen from the list
of the most frequently used words . You will not have any serious problems while
working on this section.
(45) I noticed in assignment 2 and the assignment sample, there were some
roots that were not listed in our textbook or CC, we need to use the web
dictionary. So are you going to give us these kinds of words and ask us to write
out the roots which are not listed in the CC ?
You did have the access to the dictionary in Assign2, that's why the majority of
words haven't been listed in the textbook or CC. Final exam is a 'different ball
game'. All roots will be listed in the textbook (pp.325-328). Other roots will not be
the subject of any change. You were supposed to continue reviewing the roots.
(46) I have some question about the review final exam question. In question 6, it
says give the etymological structure of the words,like effligative (fabricated
root).When I look at he answer, It shows ex+flig/flag/fleg+aa+t+ive. My question
is do we need to write down all possibilities of the roots(flig/flag/fleg) in the final
exam? or only write down one should be fine?
One would be enough
(47) I'm a little confused of how much of the English partition section of the course
we should know, because in the practice final, i do not believe it has anything on
the great vowel shift. where in the English partition should we be spending most
of our energy studying?
Great Vowel Shift will be in the centre of attention.
(48) I was just wondering whether we just need to know the Latin roots, and not
the Greek roots, at the end of the courseware book. 10
Only Latin.... Greek roots will be mentioned but the changes will be relevant
ONLY for pref/root interface and only one suf. –oid.
(49) On the exam, can we just put consonant deletion for s deletion? (ex: hospital >
hostel > hotel )
No. For French It should be ‘s’ deletion
(50) I have a question about the assibilation in French.
For example, "agent"=ag+e+nt, before we learned