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LING 1000 ch 1

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LING 1000
Tom Wilson

Ch 1: what is language Linguistic knowledge • Knowing a language = knowing what sounds are in the lang, and what is not • Knowing a language = knowing how to relate sounds to meaning • Different types of sign lang: mimetic (like miming); iconic (non-arbitrary b/w form and meaning) • Form: sound; meaning: concept Sound symbolism: words that sound predicts their meaning • • Knowing a language = making words to phrases and phrases to sentences • This is the creative aspect of lang: you are able to make new sentences when you want • Knowing a language = knowing the rules that come w/ the language Linguistic knowledge and performance • Ling competence: the k/l you have in order to produce sentences • Ling performance: how you use your k/l in actual speech production What is grammar • Grammar: sound patterns, meaning of words and rules to combine words (is our over- all ling competence) Descriptive grammar • Describes your basic ling k/l (not how you should speak, just what you know) • It is both a mental grammar and is also a model grammar (of your mental ability) • Grammatical sentence: sentence conforms to both rules Prescriptive grammar • Used to tell people what rules they should know (not to describe the rules to them) • It is hard to use prescriptive grammar, since language and the way words are used change constantly • You are more likely to use pres grammar when writing than when speaking, since the rules are taught to you for writing but not for speaking Teaching grammars and reference grammars Teaching grammar: used to learn a new language or dialect; uses gloss to explain • the meaning of the word (use the native language to explain the learning l
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