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Exam Review.docx

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York University
MGMT 1040
Walter Perchal

Exam Review Ethics: Right action vs goodness Developing virtues leads to creating values Purpose of economics: pursue private vices to lead to the public good Laissez faire- less gov’t intervention- invisible hand- freidman Friedman- CSR of companies is to make profit Impartiality vs Sustainability (China/India’s growth without pollution) Impartiality- equal and non-discriminating policies (IMF- letting countries opportunity to develop) Sustainability- limiting externalities- growing without depleting resources Teleological vs Deontological (goodness vs right action) Utalitarianism- greatest good for greatest number of people- consequences Act vs rule utilitarianism- act disregards all rules, rule within laws but still keeping consequences in mind Problems with utilitarianism: Cardinal vs Ordinal utility- cardinal measures intensity, ordinal ranks possibilities of goodness Agent neutral theory: parents care about children Deontology- action without reference to consequence Act deontology- action that adheres to self intrinsic values- intuitionism vs Rule deonotology- action that adheres to universal principles- rationalism Kant- rule based and a rationalist A priori- holy will- without empiricism Start hypothetical imperative- determine empirical personal goal and means to achieve First formulation: those means should be able to translate to universal laws Second formulation: treat humanity as an end in itself, not as a means to an end (don’t exploit) Third formulation: translate autonomous principles and rational morality to legal and political systems to achieve a kingdom of ends Categorical imperative: process by which you take the hypothetical imperative (material end and its means) and see if it can be converted to universal principles by putting it through the 3 formulations and removing the domain of material interests Virtue Theory: Concerns those characteristics needed by human beings to achieve normative ideals of right action or goodness Virtue ethics: the ethics of being rather than the ethics of doing, separate from goodness and right action because it talks about “being” rather than “doing” Eudemonism: focus on the characteristics that are important in ensuring that individuals, communities achieve the maximum degree of self-actualization Virtues: truthfulness, consciousness, benevolence, faithfulness Care ethics: which focuses on the relationships of individuals, and their capacities to negotiate supererogatory (going beyond the call of duty) solutions based on good communications (associates with feminist virtues) Rights theory: creating basic set of rights Negative rights: compel others to refrain from certain actions (freedom from persecution, abuse, etc) Life and liberty, most basic, negative, and universal rights Positive rights: compel specific actions (freedom to healthcare, education, of speech) Relativistic, positive rights put the burden on gov’t and regulatory bodies Spurious rights: right to smoke, airline bill of rights (privilege and luxury) Property rights: can be instrumental (means to an end, shelter) or intrinsic (luxury, western society) Problems: eminent domain (gov’t take away to use for public interests, not far from feudalism) Property to be used for capitalistic purposes, but depletes resources (help & hurt) Prima facie: apparent at first sight, but not applicable in all situations Inalienable rights: permanent, intrinsically valuable, and universal under a priori principles (life, liberty..) Gov’t would be wrong if they don’t recognize them, they are protected by int’l law Natural rights: based on biological nature, takes out religion, grounded in empirical experiences Justification: 1) self-evidence: obvious that the rights can be justified 2) divine authority: given by god 3) Natural law: by Thomas Aquinas, can be acquired from nature 4) Human nature: justified on the basis of human capacities (Reasoning, emotions) Human rights: natural rights explicitly acknowledged in law (freedom from torture, rights of the child) Moral rights: accrue to us through the acceptance of an ethical system (Kant) Legal righ
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