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MKTG 4150 Study Guide - Final Guide: Consumer Reports, Sensory Neuron, Gluten

Course Code
MKTG 4150
Arundhati Bhattacharyya
Study Guide

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Jessica Gahtan Outline with relevant stuff MKTG 4150
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Written Report Instructions:
Your final written report consists of four parts. Using sources such as Fortune, BusinessWeek, the
Wall Street Journal, etc., identify a current marketing issue related to a consumer product,
service, company, or market. The aim is to analyze the consumer behavior inherent in some real-
world situation and develop marketing recommendations based on that analysis.
A. Marketing problem(s)/ phenomenon
You should identify the key marketing problem(s)/phenomenon you will address in your project.
Identifying examples of the problem will help you focus your project. You may use examples
photographs, commercials, promotions, etc. You should identify the key consumer behavior
issues, concepts, and so on that we have discussed in class that are relevant to the marketing
problem you have identified. It is important to be quite specific in your problem definition (e.g.,
are the issues related to consumer attitudes, cognitive decision making, or perception and why?).
Current marketing issue related to a consumer product, service, company, or market
How does consumer behaviour play a role make an appropriate recommendation.
Outline Instructions
Your group will submit a two-page outline of your project proposal. Include brief discussions on
the problem/phenomenon, consumer behavior theories/concepts/principles you believe play a part
in the problem/phenomenon, and how you propose to study this problem/phenomenon. After
reviewing the outlines, I will schedule a time for each group to meet me.
Phenomenon: Increasing numbers of people are avoiding gluten, for non-medical reasons.
Who are we talking about?
Lifestyles? psychographics: way feel about selves, attitudes to things and others around us,
things we value, things we do in our spare time
Why do they do what they do?
Ways that companies exploit and perpetuate this
How do they perceive it?
Perception is the process by which sensations are selected, organized and
Marketers contribute to the wild array of stimulation
Ads, radio, billboards, packaging--media is everywhere
Sensory inputs:
Our senses react to touch, smell, taste and other stimulation
People react to colour, noise and music
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Sensory inputs create many associations in terms of decisions, memories and choices
Think about it: would you buy a new sweater without touching it? Why or why not?
Exposure occurs when a stimulus comes within range of someone’s sensory
Consumers can focus on the stimulus, or ignore the information
Cadillac goes from zero to 60 mph in 5 secondsas shown in an ad that was just 5
seconds long
Psychophysics: Science that focuses on how the physical environment is integrated
with our personal, subjective world
Perceptual Selectivity
Perceptual filters - based on past experiences
Perceptual vigilance aware of stimuli that relate to their current needs
Perceptual defence - see what you want to see and ignore what they don’t want to see
The Learning Process
Products as reminders of life experiences
Products + memory = brand equity/loyalty
Learning: A relatively permanent change in behaviour caused by experience
Incidental learning
Ongoing process
Behavioural learning theories maybe people say (+) things when do behaviour X
Learning = responses to external events
“Black box”
Observable behaviour
Classical conditioning and instrumental conditioning
Classical conditioning: a stimulus that elicits a response is paired with another
stimulus that initially does not elicit a response on its own.
Instrumental conditioning (also, operant conditioning):
Celebs are on bandwagon
Internal mental processes
Socially desirable models/celebrities who use or do not use their products
We encode information to help us retain it later
Sensory meaning - colours, shapes
Semantic meaning - symbolic associations
Personal relevance
Episodic/flashbulb memories
Product information conveyed as a narrative
Low-involvement products tend to have descriptive, snappy names
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Retrieval is the process of accessing information from long-term memory factors
Situational factors
Consumer attention; pioneering brand; descriptive brand names
Viewing environment (continuous activity; commercial order in sequence)
Post-experience advertising effects
Motivation and Values
- Motivation: Process
that leads people to behave as they do
Also, the forces that drive us to buy/use products
Goal: Consumer’s desired end-state
Want: Manifestation
of consumer need
Motivational strength: Degree of willingness to expend energy to reach a goal
Drive theory: Biological needs that produce unpleasant states of arousal (e.g.,
Homeostasis: A balanced state
Expectancy theory: Behaviour is pulled by expectations of achieving desirable
Needs vs. wants
Types of needs:
Biogenic: Biological needs, such as for air, water, food
Psychogenic: Need for status, power, affiliation
Utilitarian: Need for tangible attributes of a product, such as miles per gallon in a
car or calories in a cheeseburger
Hedonic: Needs for excitement, self-confidence, fantasy
Motivational conflicts
Goal valence:
Positively valued
goal: Approach
Negatively valued