Point out the fallacies and neutralize the ones in bold. When neutralizing the fallacy ask good critical
questions as you are locating the fallacy. Also state which kind of mode according to Gilbert are the
1. Smith, who is from England, decides to attend graduate school at Ohio State University. He has
never been to the US before. The day after he arrives, he is walking back from an orientation
session and sees two white (albino) squirrels chasing each other around a tree. In his next letter
home, he tells his family that American squirrels are white.
2. On the other hand, if one argues that God, telepathy, and so on do exist because their non-
existence has not been proved, then one argues fallaciously as well.
3. Example: Jason said that that was all cool and everything, but his grandfather smoked, like, 30
cigarettes a day and lived until 97 - so don't believe everything you read about meta analyses of
methodologically sound studies showing proven causal relationships.
4. One of the key tenants of the UFO = aliens movement is that The Government knows what’s
going on and does its darndest to cover it up so the general public caan’t figure it out. Among
The Government’s key enforcers are the “Men in Black” and the military.
Hence, whenever there’s a UFO sighting that gets any press, if there is any military activity in the
area, be it troop movements, air drills, or the like, UFO proponents will call fire to that smoke:
The military activity is proof that it really was an alien spaceship..
5. No one has objected to Lander's parking policies during the last month of classes, so I suppose
those policies are very good
6. Every day, I eat cereal for breakfast. One time, I had a muffin instead, and there was a major
earthquake in my city. I've eaten cereal ever since.
7. If once a man indulges himself in murder, very soon he comes to think little of robbing; and from
robbing he comes next to drinking and Sabbath-breaking, and from that to incivility and
procrastination. Once begin upon this downward path, you never know where you are to stop.
Many a man has dated his ruin from some murder or other that perhaps he thought little of at
the time. 8. Employees are like nails. Just as nails must be hit in the head in order to make them work, so
9. Well, we shouldn't be surprised that Senator Smith supports this new tax - considering how long
he has been living in Washington D.C. and working in politics, it would be a shock if he didn't
10. Sam is riding her bike in her home town in Maine, minding her own business. A station wagon
comes up behind her and the driver starts beeping his horn and then tries to force her off the
road. As he goes by, the driver yells "get on the sidewalk where you belong!" Sam sees that the
car has Ohio plates and concludes that all Ohio drivers are jerks.
11. We gave half the members of the hiking club Durell hiking boots and the other half good-quality
tennis shoes. After three months of hiking, you can see for yourself that Durell lasted longer.
You, too, should use Durell when you need hiking boots
12. Jane: "Did you hear about those terrorists killing those poor people? That sort of killing is just