Step 1: Main Conclusion
Animals cannot be the bearers of rights because the concept of rights is essentially human; it is rooted in and
has force within a human moral world (¶1).
Step 2: The Main Concepts (6 concepts)
Rights (¶1), Animals (¶1), Interests (¶1), Humane (¶17), Human Moral World (¶18), Moral Patients (¶20)
Step 3: The Main Conceptual Question (1-3 questions)
Are rights reserved only to the human moral world?
Do animals have a moral state of mind?
Do the rights of humans override the rights of animals?
Step 4: The main Premise in Support of the Main Conclusion
(¶12) P1: Many obligations are owed by humans to animals; few will deny that. But it certainly
does not follow from this that animals have rights because it is certainly not true that
every obligation of ours arises from the rights of another.
(¶15) P2: One may be obliged to another for a special act of kindness done; one may be obliged
to put an animal out of its misery in view of its condition- but neither the beneficiary
of that kindness nor that dying animal may have had a claim of right.
(¶40) [HP]: Most advances in medicine will continue to rely on the use of nonhuman animals, or
they will stop.
[Can medicine further advance without the routine use of animals in experimentation?]
****And state the [CONCLUSION]****
Step 6.1: Are the Concepts Clearly Defined? (Do it twice)
The author has used the concept ___ in paragraph__, where he has failed to define this term in context to the article.
In paragraph __, the author states “____” I do not believe this definition to be compelling by the author, because it
simply is not defined clearly. He provided one word: __, to define __, but how that relates to ___ is unclear. [Provide
evidence here] Overall, his definition and use of phantasm is ambiguous, unclear, and vague because its implications
can mean many different things. Perhaps, the author is trying to say ____. Or ____. Thus, I think this meaning went
beyond the context of the article; leaving it to be confusing and unclear.
Step 6.2: Are They Used In a Sense That is Too Narrow or Too Wide?
The concept ___ in paragraph _ is used by the author too widely because it goes beyond the context of the article.
The author states in paragraph _ “__”. One could pose to the author and ask whether he is referring to the ____ or
____. [give evidence] The concept __ could have a variety of meaning, and the author failed to defined it more
specifically what he meant by the concept because (give your evidence on meaning). Therefore, Cohen used the
concept morally too widely, failing to define, more specifically what he/she meant by the meaning.
The author included the concept __ in paragraph _, where he has used it too narrowly. The author states in
paragraph__, “__”. However, the concept is one of the most pervasive and convincing issues raised against the
author’s argument. (give evidence) So how could the author not apply more weight on this more significantly. The
author has included a concept in his article that he has failed to give proper recognition and credence to. (give more
evidence). Therefore the author has failed to ensure the appropriate characteristics given to the concept, by using it to
narrowly in the context of his/her argument. One might pose to the author that ____. Thus, the author has failed to
give enough recognition to something as important as the concept, and has therefore, used it too narrowly in the
context of the article.
Step 6.3: Are The Concepts Consistently Used?
“Author” has equivocated on the concept of ___ in # separate paragraphs, and I therefore thought it would be
interesting and necessary to discuss them.
P1 “concept” is used in the sense …P2 “concept” is used in the sense …P3 “concept” is used in the sense...
“Author” uses the concept of ____ which has equivocated in meaning in # separate paragraphs. In paragraph _, the
author states, “Evidence 1” Here, “Author” is saying that “explanation to P1”. Then “Author” goes on to say in
paragraph _, “Evidence 2” Here “Author” is saying that “explanation to P2”. The author has slid between two
meanings of the same word, and has thus, committed the fallacy of equivocation.
Further, in paragraph _, “Author” states, “Evidence 3.” In this premise, “Author” has equivocated on the concept of
____ because “explanation to P3”. Thus, “Author” has failed to give a compelling argument in paragraphs ? because she/he has equivocated in meaning between the concepts of ____. His structure is therefore invalid, and a violation of
the criterion of a well formed argument.
Step 6.4: Can Their Weaknesses Be Strengthened?
The author uses the term ___ (¶_), where he has created a compelling argument and explanation of this term. In
paragraph _, “Author” writes: “Evidence”
His argument is