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Final

MODR 1770 First Exam Review

7 Pages
195 Views

Department
Modes Of Reasoning
Course Code
MODR 1770
Professor
Glen Hoffmann

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Description
MODR Review Quiz 2 Chapter 4 Reasons for Belief and Doubt When Claims Conflict P and q are contradictories if and only if it is not possible for p and q to have same truthvalueone is true and one is falsecant be true at the same timeEx Today is Thursday Today is not Thursday Contraries P and q statements are contraries It is possible for both of them to be false Ex Today is Monday today is Thursday Rules Important Principles When p a statement an assertion conflicts with another claim qthat we have good reason to accept we have good grounds for doubting pWhen a claim p conflicts with another claim q and we have no reason for believing one over the other we should suspend judgment concerning p and qWhen a claim p conflicts with our background information we have good reason for doubting p Background informationsometimes this means common knowledge shared by your peers sometimes it means your own personal background information Neither category is exactly fixed or determinateExperts and Evidence An expert is someone who is more knowledgeable in a particular subject area than most others areWhat makes someone an expertoa Appropriate education and training in the fieldob Relevant experience in the fieldoc A good reputation among peers in the fieldod Professional accomplishmentsAppropriate reliance on Expert Authorities Why should we generally trust expertsaThey have more information on the relevant subject areabThey are better at making judgments in that areaIf a claim conflicts with expert opinion we have good reason to doubt itWhen the experts disagree about a claim we have good reason to suspend judgment concerning itCautions Concerning Experts Experts may be biased dishonest dysfunctional or just wrong Fallacy of appeal to authority occurs when
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