Final Exam will have 100 questions. Smattering of lecture questions based on MC TF
questions. Each listening example will have 3-4 MC questions.
We are now in the in-between years 1958-1964.
These developments were during the in between years and were carried forward to give
lead for the 1960s. The Beatles synthesized this.
Brian Wilson (Beach Boys) (b. 1942) SLIDE
what he brought to the table musically. As a young boy he heard a song by The Four
Freshmen and was amazed by it. 4 part harmonies.
When musicians build a chord they take a two octave scale C-C-C 15 notes. You skip the
second note and this creates a triad technique. C,E, G is a triad, any sequence of thirds.
First Third and Fifth notes.
Then there was a fourth note added. This thickens the mixture. This was the seventh note
on the two octave scale. Anything that was added over seven was considered an
Brian Wilson heard extensions and this was what made him so awed by the music.
"Our Love is Here to Stay" Four Freshmen begins as G, Dmaj, G13, Cmaj7, G.
Voice Leading - counterpoint- how one voice moves compared to another voice. Brian
Wilson's music did use extensions. His music consisted of contrary harmonies.
"Surfin' USA" Beach Boys. "Surfer Girl".
Pet Sounds (1966) did not do as well as hoped. The Beatles confessed tearing this Beach
Boys record and altering it to create Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band.
The recording of the song "Sloop John B" was first recorded by Cleveland Simmons in
Jamaica (Folk song) in 1924. Brian Wilson was familiar with Kingston Trio which
recorded it in 1958.
During this time folk revival was happening in North America. Brian Wilson was not
interested in this that much he wanted to express his music as an art form. Bob Dylan
was. One of the problems of Folk music was that there were no variations in the form.
Repetitive forms. Brian Wilson worked within the limitations. He would create small
compositions within the larger ones that were already in the song. (Refer to slide under
lyrics.) One of the other things Brian Wilson did was combining different instruments
that were not normally played together for good reasons. Such as Flute, guitar,
glockenspiel, base and percussion as well as vocals. He would layer the instruments
rather than have them played together all at once.
Brian Wilson brought
Innovative Instrument Combinations
Additive Arranging Techniques
1960s the biggest and greatest thing was singer-songwriters.
A. SLIDE CANADIAN MUSIC BUSINESS: GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
One of the problems with the Canadian music industry, up until 1970...
FOLK REVIVAL Gordon Lightfoot, Neil Young, Joni Mitchell, Bob Dylan
We have not yet discussed politics. The arrival of politics in popular music began to take
hold in the 1960s and it touches everything.
In 1909 the International Workers of the world. - Trade Unionism.
Around this trade union movement. There was a book of songs called the "Little Red
Book" by Joe Hill.
In the 1920s the growth of fiddle conventions. One of the other things was the
Hootenannies. If you were a group of people who were trying to bring in a union you
would have to do it under the radar, as flash concerts.
1940s Anti-War Movement.
Another key cultural event at this time were Beat Poets.
There were a number of things that were key events of the folk revival. (on the slide)
The Hootenanny is the basis of the modern day music festival. Woodstock and Altamont
Music festivals in 1969.
In the 1960s there was growing concerns because of so much political damages that were
occurring. Music was in the middle of all of this.
College Campus/ Coffee Houses
Civil Rights Movement
Anti-War Movement (Vi