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Chapter 5,11,18.docx

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MUSI 1530
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Chapter 5: Tin Pan Alley in the Era of Rock and Roll Brill Building Pop: A New Tin Pan Alley - Late 1950s/ early 1960s - Pop charts of late 1950s filled with teen idols (white + clean cut, appearance was important) - Pat Boone most successful teen idol of the 1950s (crooner) - His hits were clean versions of Little Richard (Tutti Fruitti, Long Tall Sally), and Fats Dominos (Aint that a Shame) - Boone had 38 top 40 hits - Paul Anka (Canadian composer/ performer), teen idol hit, sold over 100+mill records - There were many Philadelphia based teen idols as well - Eg Bobby Rydell, Frankie Avalon, and Fabian who were promoted for their appearances and were launched in the show “American Bandstand” hosted by Dick Clark - Jerry Lieber and Mike Stoller were the first to introduce strings on R and B records, wrote music for Elvis Preslet and Dxisie Cups, and incorporated humorous storytelling in songs - Brill Building- located in tin pan alley, a collection of new yorks best songwriters. They’d come inside a little cubicle all day, and were locked inside it from 10-6 and had to write songs and pretend they were 13 year old school girls. This fueled girl groups, top 40 hits and teen idol. Rather than sheet music, the audio writers used audiotaped “Demos” - Brill building songwriters brought tin pan alley tradition to rock songwriting - Many white rock song artists emerged in the 1960s from Italian neighbourhoods in the new yorks-new jersey Philadelphia district. They played “Italo-american”rock - Eg. Dion and belmonts, franki valli (falsetto) and the four seasons, and bobby darin - Early 1960s saw more dancers than any other north American era (Eg the twist, the hucklebuck, the stroll, the watusi, the limbo, the loco-motion, the fly, the pony, the mashed potatoes, the monkey, the swim, the jerk, and the hitchhike) - The twist was the most popular one and lasted the longest. It was first sang by the isley brothers in 1962 then covered by the beatles Girl Groups, Phil Spector, and the Wall of Sound - 1958-1965, girl groups dominated (especially young black girls) - Sound was sweet, melodramatic, and mixed hooks and doo-wop harmonies - Eg. Chantels and shirelles - Most of these girl groups were associated with phil spector - Phil Spector was a producer and mostly known for his “wall of sound” production technique. He used echo chambers and filled the studio with musicians, running the previous records on the sound system. He did NOT use stereo or multitrack recordings - His self-inflicted downfall came in 1966 when his song “River Deep, Mountain High” by Tina Turner and Ike didn’t do so well on the pop charts. He perceived this as failure and only emerged occasionally to work with John Lennon, the Beatles, and Leonard Cohen Surf Music - Early 1960s, west coast phenomenon, instrumental and vocal, lasted until the british invansion in 1964, and fueled the myth of the good life in southern California - Music was harmonically simple and characterized by reverb-drenched guitar and rolling instrumentals - “father of heavy metal”- dick dale, he was a very talented guitarist, the best by far - Jan Berry and Dean Torrence and the Beach Boys wrote the history of vocal surf music - Jan Berry influenced Brian Wilson who later on led the beach boys - The Beach Boys were one of the only groups who wrote their own material at the time and challenged the popularity of the Beatles - The Beach Boys were inspired by the Four Freshman and Wilson was inspired by the wall of sound’s production techniques - Brian Wilson produced the album Pet Sounds, but because it wasn’t very popular, he quit tour, went back to the studio to work for 6 more months and created Good Vibrations. Then he started to produce the album Smile but his drug use accelerated and he ruined many of the tracks. The Beach Boys minus Wilson were not very successful SUMMARY - 1960s brought the era of rock and soul - Guitarist Dick Dale brought the emergence of surf music and the Beach Boys - Girl groups were big in the early 1960s - The Brick Brill Building, Spector’s Wall of Sound, Lieber and Stoller, rise of white rock artists Chapter 11: R&B and the Rise of Rock and Roll R & B and the Rise of Rock and Roll - The main cultural force in the evolution of rock was African American music and rock’s development replicated a pattern of cultural appropriation that begun with minstrelsy - The birth of rock was influenced by the political and social climate of the 1950s: economic prosperity, growth of suburbia, baby boom, cars, new music-listening technologies, and the Cold War and the civil rights movement - In 1948 two major record labels, RCA and Columbia engaged in a “battle of the record speeds” with RCA had a 45 rpm record for popular music and Columbia had a LP record for classical music and jazz - Television also expanded, by 1955, 2/3 of households had them in North America - In the beginning of 1949, Billboard magazine re-organized its hit-record charts into three categories: popular music, country and western, and rhythm and blues. The only African American singers featured on the charts were Nat King Cole and Billy Eckstine but within a few years, white and blacks were both featured - Alan Freed opened the door to white acceptance of black music by refusing to play white cover versions of R and B, and he was one of the first people to refer to it as rock and roll - The “Moondog Coronation Ball” was the first rock concert ever, and was hosted by Alan Freed in 1952 in a hockey arena. He called himself Moondog - Freed’s decline began in 1958 when one of his concerts resulted in violence and legal charges - He was also indicted and convicted for accepting payloa (bribes to push certain records) from record companies. - American Hot Wax: Film in 1978 about Freed and his contributions to rock - Bill Haley was the first white artist to successfully adapt the r&b styles for a mass audience with his group, the Comets - Haley drew his music from black artists and his career began with a cover of “Rocket 88” by Jackie Brenston - His group name was first the Four Aces of Western Swing, then the Saddleman then Bill Haley and his Comets - His popularity declined in the late 1950s when Elvis and Little Richard came along as more dangerous and attractive. People associated rebellion with Haley when he was far from it Regional R&B/ Rock and Roll Styles -the three different regional music styles: new Orleans, Chicago, and Memphis New Orleans - The birthplace of jazz - Its distinctive piano-based sound showed in Fats Domino and Lloyd Price - Many of the records were produced in a recording studio built and produced by Cosimo Matassa - Fats Domino: one of the most successful rock artists of the 1950s, and one of the only black artists. He had a contract where the labels would pay him royalties per sale of song rather than a single flat fee- he was one of the few people who weren’t exploited by the companies and he was one of the first black artists on national television and appeared in Alan Freeds shows - Little Richard: first self-styled “King of Rock and Roll.” He personified the wildness and danger of rock for white audiences and created the hit “Tuitti Fruitti”. Very homosexual, and one of the first rock artists to elaborately use costume and makeup. His band was the Upsetters. Chicago - Extensive immigration of African americans from the south= development in jazz and blues - This is where the formation of the Chicago blues came in, with the help of Muddy Waters (fun fact: the rolling stones took their name from a muddy waters tune) - Chess Records: chicago’s seminal blues/ r&b label. Found by Leonard and Phil Chess who were Polish Jews that first created Aristocrats Records then changed the name to Chess. The worked wi
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