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Passive Immunization Describes advantages and disadvantages, describes vaccines and shows some milestones in active immunization

Natural Science
Course Code
NATS 1670
Motti Anafi
Study Guide

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Passive Immunization
Immediate protection
No long term protection
Serum Sickness
Risk of infection with unknown pathogens ie. In
the 80’s hepatitis and AIDS
Active Immunity
Prevention and Therapy of Infections
Most of the damage to the cells during infections occur very early, often before the clinical
symptoms of disease appear
This makes drug treatment of infection irrelevant in many cases
Prevention of infection is better and cheaper
What is a vaccine?
Harmless agents, perceived as enemies
Organisms/ molecules that elicit an immune response
Trigger active immunity, stimulating the body to defend itself
Provide protective immunity against a potential pathogen
Herd immunity
Describes a type of immunity, that occurs when the vaccination of a portion of the
population provides protection to unprotected individuals
Milestones in Active Immunization
Sniffing of smallpox crust in China
Variolation (Inoculation with the wild type smallpox)
Turks started using variolation
England introduced variolation
Edward Jenner discovers a safe smallpox vaccine
Exposed a healthy child (his own) to cowpox virus from a milkmaid and then attempted
to infect the boy with smallpox virus
The child did not develop smallpox
Method works because cowpox shares antigens with smallpox, but doesn’t cause the
In 1980 the World Health Organization officially declared ‘the world and its peoples’ free
from endemic smallpox
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