NATS 1670 Study Guide - Edward Jenner, Antigenicity, Latv

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Vaccination and Immunization
Prevention and Therapy of Infections
-The goal is to activate immunity before person is infected with a pathogen. This can be
done through vaccinations
-Most of the damage to cells during infections occurs very early, often before the clinical
symptoms of disease appear.
-Fell ill after the damage was done.
-This makes drug treatment of infection irrelevant in many cases.
-Prevention of infection is better and cheaper (not likely to have the flu if person gets the
vaccine).
-Costs less than $1 for a dose.
-Treatment will not prevent the damage.
Vaccines
Administered through needle or mouth (oral).
Vaccination: the process of exposing an individual to an antigen to stimulate an
immune response.
Prime the immune system to a pathogen.
Vaccines are harmless agents, perceived as enemies.
Trigger active immunity, stimulating the body to defend itself.
Provide protective immunity against a potential pathogen.
Virulency vs antigenicity.
Give the immune system the impression that the pathogen is there – just proteins
from the pathogen (the protein cannot cause the disease).
Mimic infection.
Vaccines are extremely safe.
Vaccine made in 2000 for the rotavirus – effective in giving immunity.
Administer vaccine when children are six months old.
Half of a million people die in Africa per year
Anatomical problem in children takes place when child is 12 months old.
Active Immunization
Vaccine -> acquired immunity -> reinfection -> no disease.
Vaccination can be the first time the 10 Ag is activated.
Develop memory cells in the third line of defense.
Vaccine is the primary immune response – gives significant amount of antibodies.
Milestones in Immunization
2000 BC.
-Sniffing of smallpox crust in China.
-Variolation: inoculation with the wild type smallpox.
1500 AD.
-Turks started to use variolation.
-1720s.
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Document Summary

The goal is to activate immunity before person is infected with a pathogen. Most of the damage to cells during infections occurs very early, often before the clinical symptoms of disease appear. This makes drug treatment of infection irrelevant in many cases. Prevention of infection is better and cheaper (not likely to have the flu if person gets the vaccine). Vaccine -> acquired immunity -> reinfection -> no disease. Vaccination can be the first time the 10 ag is activated. Develop memory cells in the third line of defense. Vaccine is the primary immune response gives significant amount of antibodies. Variolation gives immunity however, it is not so safe. 95% of cases, you have immunity without the disease. People in the rural regions (especially people with cows) usually show markings on their hands. Something they have on their hands must be related to the protection they have.

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