NATS 1670 Study Guide - Transfer Rna, Ribosomal Rna

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Human Health and Disease
Two Functional roles of DNA
- Duplication—molecule must be replicated and transmitted in each cell division
oEach daughter cell contains almost identical copies of the DNA molecules
as compared to its mother cell
- Information: the molecule contains information expressed in the sequence of the
nucleotides
oThe sequences are transcribed into RNA to release their information
Flow of information
- In genomes
1. DNA—recipie book (copied everytime cell is replicated
2. RNA—information carrriers
3. Proteins—activity
4. Phenotypes—physical features and functional traits of organism
Central Dogma of Genetics
- DNA transcribed to RNA
- RNA translated to form polypeptides (proteins)
- How does DNA get into the cytoplasm?
oRNA is made in the nucleus in the cell by copying the cell, RNA can then
move outside the nucleus in order to find the translation machinery
(ribosomes)
oMediated by different types of molecules
oOH and H differences
oThymine is DNA’s base but Uracil is RNA’s base
Both bind to adenine
- Always double stranded molecules
- RNA appears as single stranded molecule
Transcription
- DNA itself is used only for storage and transmission
- Transcription is the process of releasing information contained in a DNA
sequence
- The sequence of bases in the DNA template is copied into an RNA sequence,
which is either used directly or translated into a polypeptide
Types of RNA
- mRNA—Messager intermediate molecules used for transfer the information from
DNA to protein
- rRNA—(ribosomal) functional RNA molecules that are components of the
ribosome
oTranslation material of the cell
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