NATS 1670 Study Guide - Smallpox, Tuberculosis, Bioterrorism

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HUMAN HEALTH AND DISEASE LECUTRE 4
Emerging Infectious Diseases
- Infectious diseases as a group will not disappear
oDrug-resistant strains
oOutbreaks of existing diseases
oNew disease-causing agent
Drug- resistant
- How are they developed?
oEvery population has levels of variability
When you look at bacteria in nature, similar bacteria cells are
different from one person to another
Ex. Flu symptoms are different from person to person; this is why
some people have throat irritation while others don’t
- Sensitivity to antibiotics
oBacteria in throat, killed in treatment after 4 days
oBig issue is the drug-resistant mutations
oEx. Prescribe antibiotics 10 days, 3 a day, but you forgot to take one with
your lunch
In system, you will have less concentration is system
oYou make decision to stop taking drugs
You are going to get into trouble, drug sensitive material is out of
the way, and the drug-resistant is going to stay there
Drug resistant have no competition of for space in your throat
They will make a lot of themselves, and colonize you
Antibiotics you will use now, are out of the way
Low concentration of antibiotics provides a selective advantage for
the resistant bacteria]
This bacteria will now infect other people
oFast evolution selective pressure
oWhen treating cancer in low doses, you are therefore promoting the drug
resistant strain of cancer
- Drug resistant strain of e-coli video
oUsed properly, antibiotics can kill bacteria and save lives, but low levels of
antibiotics encourage drug-resistant strains
- Antibiotics, if used properly, kill both drug sensitive and resistant strains
oHigh concentration of the drug plus long treatment are likely to kill the
drug resistant pathogens
- Strep = auto immune diseases
- Do not use antibiotics unless it is necessary
- Who should be “blamed” for antibiotics resistance?
oFarmers
80% of all antibiotics are used on factory farm animals
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Used as growth promoters
When it comes to chickens and cows, you are killing
bacteria cells to send their brain receptors to message to
stop eating
oCauses abnormal growth
Farmers caught on to this and are now ordering many
antibiotics
This may be the reason for obesity crisis
There are specific countries that do not allow farmers to use
antibiotics
There are no significant regulation in North America
oHealth workers
Young mother is coming to the doctor’s office with a child who is
not feeling well
Doctor look at throat and decides that it is the viral
infection and should go home
Mother wants antibiotics because child is going crazy
Physician says fine, give antibiotics
Child gets antibiotic treatment, fine after a few days, so
mother makes a decision; when should I give the child
drugs when he feels okay?
Mother stops and now the child has an abundance of drug
resistant strain in them
oSpecial m protein in strep bacteria cell wall to our heart
If you are infected a long time with bacteria, you are going to get
treated for against m protein
Our own anti bodies start attacking the heart—this causes
Rheumatic fever
This is called auto-immunity—Rheumatic fever
oDestroy structures in own body
oTo prevent this, use multiple antibiotics
Who’s to Blame?
oPatients
Make decisions on own, low doses and using antibiotics when not
needed
oHospitals
When antibiotics are secreted by patients, low doses goes into
sewage system and into water system of population
Cancer antibiotics are secreted and it is now creating new strains of
cancer and mutations
Selection of low doses
oAntibiotics policy in third world countries
Don’t have to be prescribed in third world country
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