Entire Cell Unit This is the entire first cell unit, from the first class until October 5th 2010. I never missed a class and kept up with everything said in it. Includes when the teacher says certain things mentioned will be on the exam.

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16 Oct 2011

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-divided into two process
1. Pinocytosis
-pino = drinking
2. Phagocytosis
-phago = eating
-is a membrane bound versicle formed from the cell membrane, GA, etc.
VACCUS = empty
-a membrane bound organelle containing digestive enzymes
-either fuse with and digest the contents of phagosomes, or the contents of the
cell when the cell dies
-when the cell dies, the breakdown is extremely important
-finger-like projections/extentions from the surface of the cell
1. increase the surface area of cells
-this is important in cells involved in transport of substances across t
he cell membrane
-eg. intenstinal cells
2. may help as a type of a sense organelle for some cells
-filiments or tubes that are composed of protein and are frequently associated w
ith glucose
-are criss-crossed with cytoskelleton
-helps maintain the cells shape
-pro are 10-10000x smaller than eu cells
-pro don't have a nucleus
-nucleoid = region of chromosome
-chromosome, DNA is not insulated with protein like eukaryotic DNA
-forms a loop or a ring
-pro includes plasmids
-donut shaped pieces of DNA
-some pro species have flagella
-consist of hollow tubes (don't have internal structure)
-build from disto(outer) end
-should a flagella breakoff, only takes 10-20 mins to regrow
-pro cells have been around for over 3 billion
-likely the first life forms
-eu cells have only been around for a billion years
-surface area to volume is an important factor in controlling cell size
-the surface area proportionally decreases with an increase in cell size or cell
-surface = volume
-as the size of the cell increases, the surface area decreases
-picture 3 cubes, 1cm, 2cm, 3cm
-they will ALL have a .5 surface, but the insides are different
-1cm cube:
-6(sides)x1cm = 6cm2 (surface area)
-length x width x height = 1x1x1 = 1cm3 = volume
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-2x2 = 4 cm2 x 6 sides = 24cm2
2x2x2 = 8cm3
Periferil protein molecules on either the upper or lower surface of the membrane
-if they pass through, they are integral
-plasma membrane has the consistancy of olive oil at room temperature
-the primary function is to control the passing of substances in and out of the
-the molecule making up the plasma membrane have a polar/charged head that is hy
drophilic (water loving, that's what she said)
-think of magnets
-hydrophillic heads face outward
-they are in contact with an aqueous or water environment
-the tails face inward and are nonpolar - they do NOT react with water = hydroph
Substances move through the plasma membrane in one of 5 ways:
1) Simple diffusion
-the random movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an are
a of lower concentration
-for this to occur, there is a concentration gradiant required
***-substances that can diffused through the membrane itself, include lipid solu
able substances such as alcohol, gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide), water
molecules, small molecules, ions***
-ion = electrolyte
-if there's a plus sign in the nucleus it's a proton
-for a neutral atom they need to have the same number of protons
-they balance eachother out, it's neutral
-if you remove an electron, you get a POSITIVE electron
-if you add an electron, you get a NEGATIVE electron
2) Osmosis
3) Passive/facilitated transport
4) Active transport
5) Endocytosis/Exocytosis
First THREE require no energy
Last TWO require energy
Tuesday, September 14 NATURAL SCIENCES
Chapter 3 - Cells
Random not relating to anything:
-chapters 1 and 2 won't be discussed
-ch 2 is chemistry, won't be a lot of chemical crap but their will be de
-atoms, bases, isotopes
-teach says skim through 2, "get to know it"
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-self reproducing bags of chemicals
-spherical or box shaped object surrounded by cell membrane containing a thick l
iquid, nucleus, and parts
-don't have a typical shape
-fundamental, structural unit or "building block" of all organisms
Organisms - any living thing, ie. people, animals, fat people, etc.
-cells are composed of protoplasm contained in a membrane
-protos = first
-plasma = something formed or molded
-essential material of all cells in all living organisms
-life depends on and arises out of the continuous chemical activity in protoplas
-also a complex, colloidal system
Colloidal System - permamnent suspention or finely divided particals
-these particals include large molicules such as large pieces of carbohydrates,
lipids (fats), proteins, nucleic
acids (DNA, RNA)
In simple terms - the contents of the cell taken together
-think of making scrambled eggs, whip up egg in bowl + milk etc. = proto
Organisms are divided into 5 Kingdoms
1. Monera - bacteria/blue-green algae
2. Protists - pond water organisms
3. Fungi - molds, yeast, mushrooms
4. Plants
5. Animals
Within the 5 kingdoms their are 2 basic cell types:
1. Prokaryotic
2. Eukaryotic
Pro = Before
Karyo = kernal (nucleus)
This means they DO NOT have a nucleus
"Before the nucleus"
Monera DO NOT have a nucleus.
Eu = true
Karyo = kernal (nucleus)
This means they DO have a nucleus.
Protists, fungi, plants, kindgoms HAVE a nucleus.
5 Kingdoms
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