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Final

Entire Cell Unit This is the entire first cell unit, from the first class until October 5th 2010. I never missed a class and kept up with everything said in it. Includes when the teacher says certain things mentioned will be on the exam.


Department
Natural Science
Course Code
NATS 1675
Professor
Robert Crippen
Study Guide
Final

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ENDOCYTOSIS
-divided into two process
1. Pinocytosis
-pino = drinking
2. Phagocytosis
-phago = eating
VACUOLE
-is a membrane bound versicle formed from the cell membrane, GA, etc.
VACCUS = empty
LYSOSOME
-a membrane bound organelle containing digestive enzymes
-either fuse with and digest the contents of phagosomes, or the contents of the
cell when the cell dies
-when the cell dies, the breakdown is extremely important
MICROVILLI
-finger-like projections/extentions from the surface of the cell
1. increase the surface area of cells
-this is important in cells involved in transport of substances across t
he cell membrane
-eg. intenstinal cells
2. may help as a type of a sense organelle for some cells
MICROFILIMENTS/MICROTUBULES
-filiments or tubes that are composed of protein and are frequently associated w
ith glucose
-are criss-crossed with cytoskelleton
-helps maintain the cells shape
PROKARYOTIC CELLS VS EUKARYOTIC CELLS
-pro are 10-10000x smaller than eu cells
-pro don't have a nucleus
-nucleoid = region of chromosome
-chromosome, DNA is not insulated with protein like eukaryotic DNA
-forms a loop or a ring
-pro includes plasmids
-donut shaped pieces of DNA
-some pro species have flagella
-consist of hollow tubes (don't have internal structure)
-build from disto(outer) end
-should a flagella breakoff, only takes 10-20 mins to regrow
-pro cells have been around for over 3 billion
-likely the first life forms
-eu cells have only been around for a billion years
CELL SIZE
-surface area to volume is an important factor in controlling cell size
-the surface area proportionally decreases with an increase in cell size or cell
volume
-surface = volume
-as the size of the cell increases, the surface area decreases
-picture 3 cubes, 1cm, 2cm, 3cm
-they will ALL have a .5 surface, but the insides are different
-1cm cube:
-6(sides)x1cm = 6cm2 (surface area)
-length x width x height = 1x1x1 = 1cm3 = volume

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

6:1
-2x2 = 4 cm2 x 6 sides = 24cm2
2x2x2 = 8cm3
24:8
3:1
PHOSPHOLIPID
Periferil protein molecules on either the upper or lower surface of the membrane
-if they pass through, they are integral
-plasma membrane has the consistancy of olive oil at room temperature
-the primary function is to control the passing of substances in and out of the
cell
-the molecule making up the plasma membrane have a polar/charged head that is hy
drophilic (water loving, that's what she said)
-think of magnets
-hydrophillic heads face outward
-they are in contact with an aqueous or water environment
-the tails face inward and are nonpolar - they do NOT react with water = hydroph
allic
Substances move through the plasma membrane in one of 5 ways:
1) Simple diffusion
-the random movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an are
a of lower concentration
-for this to occur, there is a concentration gradiant required
***-substances that can diffused through the membrane itself, include lipid solu
able substances such as alcohol, gases (oxygen, carbon dioxide), water
molecules, small molecules, ions***
-ion = electrolyte
-if there's a plus sign in the nucleus it's a proton
-for a neutral atom they need to have the same number of protons
-they balance eachother out, it's neutral
-if you remove an electron, you get a POSITIVE electron
-if you add an electron, you get a NEGATIVE electron
2) Osmosis
3) Passive/facilitated transport
4) Active transport
5) Endocytosis/Exocytosis
First THREE require no energy
Last TWO require energy
Tuesday, September 14 NATURAL SCIENCES
POLY = MANY
CYT = CELL
EXO = OUT
ENDO = IN
Chapter 3 - Cells
Random not relating to anything:
-chapters 1 and 2 won't be discussed
-ch 2 is chemistry, won't be a lot of chemical crap but their will be de
finitions
-atoms, bases, isotopes
-teach says skim through 2, "get to know it"

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

CELL
-self reproducing bags of chemicals
-spherical or box shaped object surrounded by cell membrane containing a thick l
iquid, nucleus, and parts
-don't have a typical shape
-fundamental, structural unit or "building block" of all organisms
Organisms - any living thing, ie. people, animals, fat people, etc.
-cells are composed of protoplasm contained in a membrane
PROTOPLASM
-protos = first
-plasma = something formed or molded
-essential material of all cells in all living organisms
-life depends on and arises out of the continuous chemical activity in protoplas
m
-also a complex, colloidal system
Colloidal System - permamnent suspention or finely divided particals
-these particals include large molicules such as large pieces of carbohydrates,
lipids (fats), proteins, nucleic
acids (DNA, RNA)
In simple terms - the contents of the cell taken together
-think of making scrambled eggs, whip up egg in bowl + milk etc. = proto
plasm
Organisms are divided into 5 Kingdoms
1. Monera - bacteria/blue-green algae
2. Protists - pond water organisms
3. Fungi - molds, yeast, mushrooms
4. Plants
5. Animals
Within the 5 kingdoms their are 2 basic cell types:
1. Prokaryotic
2. Eukaryotic
PROKARYOTIC
Pro = Before
Karyo = kernal (nucleus)
This means they DO NOT have a nucleus
"Before the nucleus"
Monera DO NOT have a nucleus.
EUKARYOTIC
Eu = true
Karyo = kernal (nucleus)
This means they DO have a nucleus.
Protists, fungi, plants, kindgoms HAVE a nucleus.
5 Kingdoms
MONERA
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