NATS 1690 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Mutation, Barr Body, Consanguinity

81 views4 pages
Published on 16 Oct 2011
School
York University
Department
Natural Science
Course
NATS 1690
Professor
Prophase Prometa Metaphas Anaphase Telophase Cytokin.
Mitosis
Asexual
Cell
Division
-Chromo. coil
-Spindle & Cellular
Poles form
-Microtubules radiate out
from poles
- Cellular
membrane
breaks down
- Microtubule
capture chrom.
At centromere
& move them
toward equator
-Chromo. Line
up at equator
- Sister
chromat.
separate
- Microtub.
pull chromo
to poles
Reverse
prophase
events when
chromo reach
poles
Cellular
Division
Meiosis
Asexual
Reprod.
(Gamete
s)
1
Chromo. Condense
-Tetrads come together
(Synopsis)
- Crossing- over of Non-
Sister Chromat.
- Chromo line
up at
metaphase
plate
- parents
move to
opposite end
of cell
Homologues
finish
migrating to
poles
- Sometimes
nuclear
envelop forms
2
Reducti
on of
chromo
#
Spindles form
Chromatids separate
Chromo. Are
aligned
Chromat.
are
separated
Separated
chromo. Reach
poles &
nuclear
envelope is
formed
Dominant:
- No carriers
-Never skips generations
- Homo or Hetero
- 1 or both alleles may be
mutated
Huntington
GOF
Trinucleotide repeat
Egg/Sperm = 50% chance for offspring
Dwarfism Dwarf parent= 50% chance of offspring
- lethal if 2 alleles are mutated
Recessive:
- Can be carrier
- must be homozygous
- can skip generations
Sickle Cell
Hemophilia - X Male infertility
males get it from mother
female will be carrier if mutated X from
father
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Document Summary

1 or both alleles may be mutated. Parents move to opposite end of cell. Male infertility males get it from mother female will be carrier if mutated x from father. Females only affected if mother is carrier and father is mutated. Thalassemia (imbalance of hb units = mix of alpha and beta. Both parents must be carriers, and 1 must have mutated beta. Father passes mutation to all his sons, and none of his daughters. Females only affected if they"re homozygous recessive females that are hetero can be carriers. No male to male transmission; son must get mutation from maternal grandfather. Germline mutation: heritable found in every cell. Polyploidy: more than 2 complete sets of chromosomes in an organism. Pedigree: traces the pattern of inheritance of traits from generation to generation make predictions about future offspring mostly used for medical reasons track the transfer of a condition. Incomplete penetrance- mutated gene that does not manifest the disease.

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