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NATS 1775 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Lightning, Organic Chemistry, Incandescent Light Bulb


Department
Natural Science
Course Code
NATS 1775
Professor
Vera Pavri
Study Guide
Midterm

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I.The Second Industrial Revolution General Overview
- Major centers: Germany and United States, who themselves were trying to catch
up to British lead in industrialization
- A newly unified Germany and young US nation wanted to emulate the successes
England had seen with industrialization, and were willing to try out new
approaches to industrial processes in order to do so
- The US and Germany were enrolling more and more students into university to
catch up in the industrial race.
- KEY FEATURE OF THIS TIME: The rise of techno-science based industries.
- These industries are unique because this is the first time we see
technology and applied science be combined
- Techno-Science based industries that were popular during this time were
electric and chemical industries. Electricity, Lights, Medicine, etc. Basically
everything we take for granted today
- In the US, they are beginning to create new methods of manufacturing
which the British would actually coin as: “The US method of
manufacturing”
- Contrast this with England, who by this time was firmly entrenched in first
industrial age methods
- For example, developments in steel-making which started in first
industrial revolution also start to help economies of countries other
than Britain like US and Germany
- US steel output: 70,000 tons in 1870; 1.25M in 1880, 10M by 1900, 26.1M in
1910 (Andrew Carnegie is a good example of major US steel maker)
- 2nd IR is also characterized by new technologies like the internal combustion
engine which was developed as alternative to steam engine by 1880s
- Advantages over steam engines: cleaner, used cheaper goal gas; run at half
speed; start and stop easily; less labor needed
- What is the most important feature of the second industrial age? THE RISE OF
TECHNO-SCIENCE BASED INDUSTRIES (see next sections)
- As we will see, techno-science based industries represent a turning point in the
relationship between science and technology from this point on, the disciplines
will be closely connected in a way we have never seen before
- This is also why it is only in the second industrial age that we can begin
discussing the theory of technology as applied science
- Germany aided with techno-science based industries by engaging in many
educational reforms while in the United States, new techniques for manufacturing
and producing goods were developed that were so different and so unique the
British coined the term “the American system of manufacturing”(ASM) to describe
these unique developments
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- In addition, by the early 1900s the Americans will also start to use a
manufacturing process that is today the foundation for most industries: MASS
PRODUCTION
- A discussion of the ASM and mass production will be the focus of future units
- For now, lets look at the rise of techno-science based industries and how they
were eventually managed and controlled by both countries and companies within
a very short period of time
II. Recapping the Relationship between Science and Technology (before 2nd
Industrial Age)
- Natural philosophy and technical arts throughout most of history were done by
different sets of people
- Intellectuals versus artisans - goals for each group were different
- Natural philosophers wanted to discuss natural phenomena for theological or
philosophical purposes, while artisans wanted to create practical and useful
artifacts
- Because artisans cannot account for “why” their technologies work and because
technical knowledge limited to object itself, mechanical arts are considered to be
inferior to natural philosophy which is considered “universal” knowledge and is
given a much higher status (recall the ideas of Plato and Aristotle)
- What starts to change during Renaissance period?
- Sungook Hong: experiments in science, social spaces and idea of hybrid humans
- Rise in experimental method means greater use of instruments in experiments
- Prior to Scientific Revolution, experiments shunned Aristotle claimed that
experimentation would not reveal true picture of nature and discouraged this
practice
- Over time, new social spaces also allows greater interaction between natural
philosophers and artisans and engineers: coffeehouses, salons, pubs, societies
- Hybrid humans individuals with a desire to learn about both science and
technology such as Da Vinci and Galileo
- Although there is SLOW and growing connection between science and
technology starting in the Renaissance, even in the first Industrial age these
groups still remained quite far apart
- Example: development of steam engine by engineers which required very
little scientific research
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III. Techno-Science Based Industries and the Relationship Between Science
Technology in the Second Industrial Age
- The relationship between science and technology will undergo a SIGNIFICANT
shift in the second industrial revolution from the early to mid-1800s
- In the first industrial age they were creating new methods of manufacturing
goods, the products were not new. In the second industrial age, the products
being made were different, that we wouldn’t have imagined years prior. Yet,
these products became essential parts of out society
- For the first time, these two disciplines will merge together in a way we have
never seen before and this will happen in large part thanks to the development of
a new “type” of industry
- This kind of industry will become known as a TECHNO-SCIENCE BASED
INDUSTRY (sometimes referred to a science-based industry in your readings)
- Techno-science industries are industries where there is the practical research
application of scientific knowledge to the production of goods
- Two great examples of techno-science based industries we will look at
include the rise of the electrical-based industries and rise of chemical-
based industries
- For example, people took the “science” of electricity and began to make
consumer products like lightbulbs and streetcars. Researchers also took
the science of chemistry and created new products like synthetic dyes and
pharmaceuticals
- These were industries where you REQUIRED scientific knowledge to produce
new technologies in society goods that could only be developed using science
- That is also why the first idea of “technology as applied science” makes sense in
this era
- Up until now the theory never made sense before because of the historic
separation between science and engineering
- Another important question is this: WHAT MAKES A TECHNO-SCIENCE
BASED INDUSTRY DIFFERENT FROM THE TRADITIONAL FACTORY
SYSTEMS OF THE FIRST INDUSTRIAL AGE?
- The major difference is that while the first industrial revolution brought forth new
methods of manufacturing and new locations such as the factory system, the
goods that were produced were still very traditional, such as cotton textiles
- In contrast, the goods produced in the second industrial age were unique
because many were a direct product of scientific research
- Also, new accomplishments in the techno-science fields eventually extend to
other traditional industries like steel, petroleum, automotive
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